BioCycle February 2005, Vol. 46, No. 2, p. 58
Emphasizing its role as “an environmentally-friendly town,” Munich prepares a new arena for the World Soccer Championships in 2006.
Ulrike de Bertoldi – Schnappinger
THE WORLD FAMOUS soccer associations – FC Bayern Munich and TSV 1860 – are building a new stadium, the 66,000 seat Allianz Arena, for the soccer world championship games in 2006. What is unique about the stadium, to be inaugurated in spring 2005, is the special sustainable waste management study to recycle and compost residuals. The aim of this study, commissioned to my architectural firm, is to determine the amount of waste produced during the games, collection options including various combinations of source separation, and most efficient processing methods. Furthermore, we provided advice and assistance pertaining to modifications, adaptations and changes that would ensure the realization of the project.
In Europe, the legal framework defines the waste disposal hierarchy as follows: First, avoid waste causing products by redesigning them for use such as in improving soils and renewable energy, with minimum landfilling.
Additionally, there are national and municipal regulations dealing with waste management. In Munich, businesses generating substantial waste are obligated to do separate collections. Companies with a waste quantity over 100,000 tons/year must submit a waste management concept to the town of Munich describing their aims and how they will fulfill the legal requirements during construction and operation of the business. They must dispose of waste either by themselves or through a third party. For final waste disposal, they are obliged to only use municipal plants, landfill and incinerator with energy recycling. Businesses must compile a detailed monthly report on their quantity, type and origin of their waste. This report will be used for statistical purposes; In case of noncompliance, the municipality will estimate a fine case by case.
“BOTTLE BILL” AT THE OKTOBERFEST IN MUNICH
The idea of a money deposit for all beverage cups began during the Oktoberfest: a Munich attraction. The world renowned Oktoberfest takes place every year in autumn. In the Seventies, the traditional dish “Schweinebraten” or “Schweinehaxe” with “Sauerkraut” typically served on porcelain plates was replaced by plastic dishes and beverages were served in plastic cups. This led to an overwhelming amount of trash. The city council decided to add a money deposit law to the existing regulation. After such a successful step of the Munich City Council, the Oktoberfest has regained its traditional flair. Once again, guests can enjoy eating on porcelain dishes and drinking beer with the original “Bierkrug”. The load of plastic was reduced, relieving the municipal facilities.
THE CATERING CONCEPT
The Catering Concept offers recommendations and solutions on Catering Strategy, which influences the visitor’s impression of the stadium as much as the game. The catering concept is carried out by specialized firms. Autogrill S.P.A. is an exceptionally strong catering partner from Italy renowned in Europe for its extraordinary motorway restaurants. The EON Catering and Kufler GmbH with Reisner & Partner from Germany have developed a practicability concept, which includes local traditions and products, for the Allianz Arena. A sustainable food concept attracts visitors. Europe is the cradle of modern soccer and of several original fast food dishes as crepes, tapas, würstel, sandwich, hamburger, panini caldi and pizza.
Reisner & Partner has developed the following strategy; Snacks like roasted almonds, popcorn etc. are served in paper bags; and beverages are served in plastic – for security reasons.
SEPARATE COLLECTION OF ORGANICS
In the kitchens of all restaurants, biowaste and food waste are separated in different containers. The yard trimmings of the greens around the stadium and the green cuttings for the game field are collected in a special central room close to the field and delivered to a private composting plant. The report defined the size of the rooms and the necessary air exchange rate.
Biodegradable plastic is used to collect the waste, as well as for goods sold to visitors.
Part of the objective of our report was to include feasible waste collection areas both inside and outside the stadium. Therefore, it was necessary to check the height and size of the available spaces as well as nearby traffic areas. The accessibility for waste collection trucks had to be checked. There are now three collection areas: One specifically designed and centrally located room inside the stadium for source separated materials and hazardous waste; One specifically designed room close to the game area inside the stadium for green waste; and One covered waste collection area in the open.
Visitors stroll around the stadium during and after the game as well as during intermission. This is when they make their buying decisions and thus wait in small groups in front of the stands. Waste bins are accessible from all sides without people disturbing each other. They may hang on the wall or be put together in freestanding groups.
Each of these scenarios checked in the report affect the separation method, collection containers, collection method and frequency, labor negotiations and rates, costs of bags and containers etc. The result is important for whom finally buys and pays for these containers and services and who has to calculate operation cost of the stadium before and as well after the games. Bids were placed for the different waste management strategies. The result of the tender showed enormous price differences that in the end would affect the operating costs of the stadium and the most cost-effective solution was chosen.
The success of said report has opened new perspectives and the architects-consultant team has proposed a project for the Olympic Games of 2008 for the new stadium in Peking.
The town of Munich wishes to transmit a clear message to the visitors of the Soccer World Championship 2006: Munich as an example of an environment-friendly town. Even though separated waste collection is not always perfect, the message is truly important. A message emphasizing how each and every activity of our daily routine creates waste and as activities like moving, sitting, eating, drinking are already included in architectural design, waste management is part of it. This is a message visitors will take home with them.
PhD Eng. architect Ulrike de Bertoldi-Schnappinger lives and works as author and consultant in Munich, Germany and Pisa Tuscany. (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
SOCCER STADIUM DESIGN
THE CONSTRUCTION project for the Allianz Arena is designed by the architects Herzog & de Meuron from Basel, Switzerland, which has been awarded the Pritzker Prize for its earlier accomplishments. The facade of the stadium is made of a lozenge pattern translucent cover that allows projecting different color combinations. The structure was designed to guarantee closeness to the game field. The enormous parking lot has been designed under an artificial garden – an “esplanade” slightly sloped towards the stadium.
Numbers for the Allianz Arena are the following: 66,000 seats; 11,000 parking spaces (with 1,200 inside the stadium); 2,200 business seats; Hall of Fame of the two soccer clubs; Food center areas include 28 stands, five restaurants, 12 coffee shops; Total cost estimated at Euro 285 million.
Sustainable waste management concepts have been developed for the stadium level (0-7); Parking lots (under Esplanade); Esplanade with integrated shops; Ticket office and waiting area; Parking place for bus/cars; and Green area and access roads. The sustainable concept includes these principles for avoiding waste: Selling beverages with fund deposit; Serving specified foods such as Bratwürste, Wiener Würst, pizza on paper napkins; Plate-return system at restaurants; Higher level restaurants with service and source separation methods to encourage composting and materials recovery.