Partnership Launches Correctional Facility Composting
The retrofit required laying perforated piping on the floor, and installing fans and timers with a supporting electrical system. Food waste is composted with yard trimmings and soybean meal (inset).

Created via a unique public-private partnership, a converted cattle barn is being used to compost food waste from the prison and commercial generators.
Marsha W. Johnston
BioCycle May 2018, Vol. 59, No. 4, p. 21

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Waste Hauling Franchise Agreement Fundamentals
In Portland, Oregon, companies that haul only 100% source separated organics or recyclables are not required to obtain a commercial permit.

Niche haulers collecting food waste are encountering restrictions — and opportunities — posed by solid waste franchise agreements.
Craig Coker
BioCycle May 2018, Vol. 59, No. 4, p. 24

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Nutrient Credits Start To Surge
Chesapeake Bay Nutrient Credits

Nutrient credit initiatives are proceeding with relative speed in several states. This could be good news for anaerobic digestion projects.
Michael H. Levin
BioCycle May 2018, Vol. 59, No. 4, p. 35

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Connections: Recycled Paper’s Fuel Potential
Sally Brown

Sally Brown
BioCycle May 2018, Vol. 59, No. 4, p. 39

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Compost Heat Capture Boosts Process Efficiency
The AGT compost aeration and heat recovery system (CAHR) captures energy in steam in compost windrows for on-site heating uses.

Installation at Vermont Natural Ag Products reduces total composting time, creating more capacity to process food waste from the local solid waste district.
Robert Spencer
BioCycle March/April 2018, Vol. 59, No. 3, p. 53

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Servicing Farms To Get Produce To Market
Boston Area Gleaners worked with The Food Project in Lincoln (MA) to glean butternut squash.

Professionally managed gleaning and value-added processing of gleaned harvests are contributing to enterprise creation and reducing the amount of food loss on farms. Part II
Marsha W. Johnston
BioCycle March/April 2018, Vol. 59, No. 3, p. 57

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2018 Bipartisan Budget Act Extends Tax Credits
BioCycle Energy

There are “some silver linings” for biogas producers, and a platform to seek longer-term extensions in or after the next budget bill’s March 23 deadline.
Michael H. Levin
BioCycle March/April 2018, Vol. 59, No. 3, p. 61

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Reducing Compost Stability Test Variability
The diaphragm pump and peristaltic pump setups were established in the laboratory with either four or six vessels each.

Researchers evaluated use of a multichannel peristaltic pump to achieve more stable airflow rates across vessels, resulting in lower sample replicate variability.
Nora Goldstein
BioCycle February 2018, Vol. 59, No. 2, p. 21

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Anaerobic Digestion Of Paper And Paperboard
paperboard

Paper and paperboard (PPB) are in the mix of pre and postconsumer feedstocks destined for AD and composting facilities. This overview assesses the digestability of PPB in AD systems.
Craig Coker
BioCycle February 2018, Vol. 59, No. 2, p. 28

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High Solids AD Integrated Into Composting Footprint
A separate pressurized storage and fueling station (above) is available for customers at the integrated AD and composting facility.

Municipalities that own a composting plant restructure with a particular focus on energy, increasing the range of waste accepted and improving product quality.
Robin Szmidt
BioCycle January 2018, Vol. 59, No. 1, p. 59

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Subscriber Exclusive: Residential Food Waste Collection Access In The U.S. (complete report)

  BioCycle Subscriber Exclusive: Click here to download the complete report, including all tabular data, in PDF format The 28-page “Residential Food Waste Collection Access In The U.S.” report includes 13 figures and these tables: • Residential Food Waste Collection Access in the U.S., 2017: All curbside and drop-off programs/communities • Curbside Collection, 2013/14 vs…….

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Composting Facility Fine-Tunes Its Strategy
The City of Raleigh’s yard trimmings composting site uses a Morbark tub grinder (top inset) to size reduce incoming materials to a uniform size. Last year, it procured a Doppstadt trommel screen (bottom inset), which “relieved the final pinch point” that would occur when compost was ready to sell.

City of Raleigh is equipped to better utilize available acreage to process greater volumes of yard trimmings into high value compost.
Niki Vala and Nora Goldstein
BioCycle December 2017, Vol. 58, No. 11, p. 24

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Grease Collection Cooperative In Tempe
Example of FOG collection at regulated food service establishment in Tempe by grease hauling service contracted by the City’s cooperative.

To increase compliance with a FOG ordinance — and secure feedstock for future codigestion projects — Arizona city procures grease recovery services on behalf of restaurants.
Marsha W. Johnston
BioCycle December 2017, Vol. 58, No. 11, p. 33

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Food Waste Infrastructure In Disposal Ban States
Food waste

Using various combinations, from reduction and recovery to composting and AD, the four New England states with organics disposal bans are advancing toward their capacity goals. Part II
Carol Adaire Jones
BioCycle November 2017, Vol. 58, No. 10, p. 19

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Subscriber Exclusive: The State Of Organics Recycling In The U.S. (complete report)
BioCycle, October, 2017

BioCycle Subscribers: Login to your BioCycle.net account to view the complete survey report.

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Wasted Food Reduction Opportunities
Vanderbilt University, Nashville

Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation found most food recovery and organics recycling activities are performed by small businesses, nonprofits, and churches and targets assistance to those entities. Part II
Alle Crampton
BioCycle October 2017, Vol. 58, No. 9, p. 37

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On-Farm Composting Hits Zoning Hurdle
Howard County public hearing on a zoning regulation amendment (ZRA) for on-farm composting included testimony in support of the ZRA by Linda Bilsens Brolis of the Institute for Local Self-Reliance (inset).

Under Maryland’s composting regulations, farms that meet the state’s exemption must still comply with local zoning ordinances.
Marsha Johnston
BioCycle October 2017, Vol. 58, No. 9, p. 40

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Emission Control For Anaerobic Digesters
Figure 1. Selected buildings and stacks for an anaerobic digester

An emission control evaluation, air quality modeling, permit application preparation, and post permit compliance activities are significant components of the air quality permitting process. Part II
John Hinckley
BioCycle October 2017, Vol. 58, No. 9, p. 45

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Life In A Washing Machine

Washington, D.C. is in spin cycle these days. Are there safe harbors for renewable energy projects, including anaerobic digestion?
Michael H. Levin
BioCycle September 2017, Vol. 58, No. 8, p. 36

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Compost Fares Well In Fertilizer And Soil Amendment Rules
What can be said legally about “compost” on a product label and/or promotional materials is determined by “Control Officials” within individual state Departments of Agriculture.

New definition for compost, and model language to exempt compost, biosolids and manure products, where warranted, under the Urban Landscape Fertilizer regulations, are among latest AAPFCO developments.
Ron Alexander
BioCycle September 2017, Vol. 58, No. 8, p. 43

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Organics Disposal Bans And Processing Infrastructure
Figure 1. County population per square kilometer

The implied logic is that if a supply of organic feedstock can be created, the infrastructure to process it will be built. Has that happened in New England states with bans? Part I
Carol Adaire Jones
BioCycle September 2017, Vol. 58, No. 8, p. 54

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Air Quality Permitting For Anaerobic Digesters
Figure 1. Significant Impact Area (SIA) to map interactive emission sources

The air permitting process has many nuances that can be thoughtfully anticipated to avoid significant project costs and delays. Part I
John Hinckley
BioCycle September 2017, Vol. 58, No. 8, p. 58

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Connections: Grid Lock
Sally Brown

Sally Brown
BioCycle September 2017, Vol. 58, No. 8, p. 61

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Bioenergy Outlook: Renewable Portfolio Standard Diaspora
Ted Niblock

Ted Niblock
BioCycle September 2017, Vol. 58, No. 8, p. 62

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Increasing Composting Infrastructure In The Nation’s Capital
Approximately 60 tons/year of food scraps are composted through the D.C. Parks & Recreation Department’s (DPR) Community Compost Cooperative Network.

A recently released feasibility study analyzed options for recycling the District of Columbia’s food scraps and yard trimmings.
Marsha Johnston and Craig Coker
BioCycle August 2017, Vol. 58, No. 7, p. 21

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Integrated Solutions On Half-Acre Urban Lot
A greenhouse heated by passive solar and biothermal sources enables year-round food production.

Solar greenhouse, seasonal farm, and food scraps collection and management using microlivestock, insects and composting, are among the activities at educational facility.
Marsha W. Johnston
BioCycle August 2017, Vol. 58, No. 7, p. 30

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Quantifying Diversion Impact Of Compostable Packaging
A 3-bin sorting system was used to collect front-of-house materials at Farm Aid, which yielded 22,851 lbs of compostable material. Food scraps comprised 46% of that total; 54% was compostable packaging and uncoated paper.

Waste stream analysis of two events held at a concert venue identified significant quantities of front-of-house compostable material, including a large amount of food.
Charlotte Dreizen
BioCycle August 2017, Vol. 58, No. 7, p. 34

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Small-Scale Anaerobic Digestion For Agricultural Waste Management
Figure 3: Specific investment costs per kilowatt of electricity depending on plant size

A study in Germany assessed performance of 10 farm digesters that utilize different engineering designs producing under 75 kW of electricity.
Sabrina Eichenauer
BioCycle August 2017, Vol. 58, No. 7, p. 43

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Liquid Manure And Digestate Composting
Figure 2. Turning and aeration screws along the bottom of the traveling bridge

Researchers in Italy examined fate of nitrogenous compounds during composting to meet EU nitrate limit of 152 lbs/acre.
Alessandro Chiumenti and Craig Coker
BioCycle July 2017, Vol. 58, No. 6, p. 23

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Measuring Food Loss And Waste
Material types and possible destinations under the FLW standard

An international standard creates a set of requirements for accounting and reporting on food loss and waste, providing a common language for measurement.
Brian Lipinski and Kai Robertson
BioCycle June 2017, Vol. 58, No. 5, p. 26

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EV Biofuel — Farm AD Power
BioCycle Energy

Using electricity produced with biogas as a fuel for electric vehicles was finalized by EPA under the Renewable Fuel Standard in 2014. To date, no pending applications have been approved.
Michael Lemon and Jim Lemon
BioCycle June 2017, Vol. 58, No. 5, p. 35

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BioEnergy Outlook: Complicated Governing — Who Knew?
Ted Niblock

Ted Niblock
BioCycle June 2017, Vol. 58, No. 5, p. 38

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Connections: Biochar Knowledge Evolution
Sally Brown

Sally Brown BioCycle  June 2017, Vol. 58, No. 5, p. 37 I remember when the Cuisinart® food processor first came out. Everybody wanted one. There was even a special magazine filled with recipes that all required a Cuisinart to make. What I came to learn is that for certain things, the Cuisinart is indispensible. For……

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Depackaging At Solid Waste Transfer Station
Storage area for packaged dry foods such as bread and cereal, to be loaded into the Scott Turbo Separator, and recovered for animal feed. An entire pallet of packaged food, inside a large cardboard box, can be tipped into the hopper for processing.

A Massachusetts trash hauling and recycling company invested in a mechanical separation system for food waste, opening up outlets for the processed material.
Bob Spencer and Morgan Casella
BioCycle May 2017, Vol. 58, No. 4, p. 21

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Biosolids Composting On Florida’s Emerald Coast
ECUA uses the Modified Static Aerobic Pile composting method, which incorporates a Harvest Quest inoculant. A Backhus compost turner mixes the blend of yard trimmings and biosolids (3:1 ratio, by volume) and forms a windrow (above). Inoculant is added, and the windrow is capped with a layer of screened overs or freshly ground yard trimmings.

Emerald Coast Utilities Authority did the math and determined that composting its biosolids and yard trimmings and selling the compost made the most economic sense.
Mitch Kessler and Nathalie Bowers
BioCycle May 2017, Vol. 58, No. 4, p. 33

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Teaming Up To Collect, Digest Food Waste
Natural Upcycling Services has a fleet of five Brown Industrial food waste collection trucks (example in top photo) that it uses to service commercial and institutional generators. A portion of the material collected is taken to the Noblehurst Green Energy digester in Livingston County, New York (above).

Natural Upcycling Services collects commercial food waste in western New York, diverting most of it to anaerobic digesters.
Katrina Mendrey
BioCycle May 2017, Vol. 58, No. 4, p. 49

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Site Restoration With Compost And Subsoiling
Figure 1. Before (a) and after (b) aerial photographs of subsoiling test site at elementary school near Baltimore, MD showing the suburban subsoiling treatment area (SS), the topsoiling treatment area (TS) and the control reference site (RS)

Field-scale trial utilizes urban soil husbandry practices — compost amendment and soil decompaction — to earn an impervious area reduction credit.
Craig Coker and Stuart Schwartz
BioCycle March/April 2017, Vol. 58, No. 3, p. 50

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California Climate Smart Ag Initiative Launched
Cover crops in an orchard reduce soil erosion.

Gov. Jerry Brown announced creation of the Healthy Soils Initiative in 2015. A recent Summit brought stakeholders together to discuss implementation and funding.
Chelsea Mitchell
BioCycle March/April 2017, Vol. 58, No. 3, p. 63

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Connections: Soil Glue
Sally Brown

Sally Brown
BioCycle March/April 2017, Vol. 58, No. 3, p. 69

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BioEnergy Outlook: The Biogas Pitch
Ted Niblock

Ted Niblock
BioCycle March/April 2017, Vol. 58, No. 3, p. 70

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Vermont Processor Tackles High Moisture Feedstocks
TAM Organics receives short cotton fiber from Crane Currency, which it blends with a dry feedstock from Ecovative Design (left, in chunks next to pile) and commercial food waste (above).

Increasing its feedstock volume with paper currency manufacturing waste brought challenges — and new opportunities.
Marsha Johnston
BioCycle February 2017, Vol. 58, No. 2, p. 27

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Deep Dive Into Feedstock Management
Compost Feedstocks: Yard trimmings, Agricultural residuals, Wood waste, Manures, Food scraps, Biosolids

First article in 5-part series discusses issues related to feedstock acceptance and management, and reviews main categories of compostable, digestible and edible organics. Part I
Rich Flammer
BioCycle January 2017, Vol. 58, No. 1, p. 24

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Testing Household Food Scraps Collection Methods
Alexandria recently completed a 3-month residential food scraps curbside collection pilot; 406 households signed up for the free service.

Two northern Virginia municipalities evaluate options to divert residential food scraps — from 24/7 drop-off to curbside collection.
Marsha Johnston
BioCycle January 2017, Vol. 58, No. 1, p. 28

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Regional Composter Confronts Contamination
The variable speed fan on the wind sifter (above on right) was retrofitted to reduce product losses on the reject side from 50% to less than 20%.

Washington State composting facility uses multiple approaches to reduce contamination in residential and commercial food waste loads.
Craig Coker
BioCycle January 2017, Vol. 58, No. 1, p. 35

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Microaeration Reduces Hydrogen Sulfide In Biogas
Six field-scale digesters at the BARC Dairy Unit were used to test how the oxidation rates for H2S changed as a function of oxygen levels and retention times.

USDA research shows dosing very small amounts of oxygen into an anaerobic digester significantly improves biogas quality.
Walter Mulbry, Stephanie Lansing and Craig Coker
BioCycle January 2017, Vol. 58, No. 1, p. 57

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Odors Sideline Anaerobic Digestion And Composting Operation
The Harvest Fraser Richmond Organics facility outside of Vancouver, BC processed about 248,000 tons of source separated organics and yard trimmings in 2015.

Richmond, British Columbia facility scales back operations while making significant improvements to its materials handling and odor control systems.
Peter Gorrie
BioCycle January 2017, Vol. 58, No. 1, p. 60

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BioEnergy Outlook: Lessons Of History
Ted Niblock

Ted Niblock
BioCycle January 2017, Vol. 58, No. 1, p. 63

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Food Scraps Collection In A Rural County
Food and floral scraps from the collection pilot (inset) have been composted at Emmet County’s existing yard trimmings composting site.

Emmet County, Michigan conducted commercial food and floral scraps collection pilots in 2015 and 2016. Tonnages diverted increased by close to 50 percent this year.
Craig Coker and Elisa Seltzer
BioCycle December 2016, Vol. 57, No. 11, p. 16

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Tackling Food Waste Via Consumer Education
SaveTheFood.com

The NRDC and Ad Council “Save The Food” public service campaign compels consumers to make simple lifestyle changes to reduce food waste.
Dana Gunders
BioCycle December 2016, Vol. 57, No. 11, p. 19

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BioEnergy Outlook: Interconnection Pitfalls

Ted Niblock
BioCycle November 2016, Vol. 57, No. 10, p. 38

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Green Infrastructure, Edible Garden And Composting Showcase
The Outdoor Classroom provides a hands-on learning environment for residents of Farragut — and showcases green infrastructure, composting and growing produce to donate to local pantries.

Farragut, Tennessee’s Outdoor Classroom, located along the town’s greenway, closes the organics recycling to “food for people” loop.
Alle Crampton
BioCycle October 2016, Vol. 57, No. 9, p. 22

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Adult Care Home Launches Food Scraps Diversion
TERI clients add mulch to the compost bin (left) and check the moisture in the mix to ensure enough water is added (right).

The McNealy House in Oceanside, California, a home for individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities, established an on-site fermentation and composting program.
Jessica Toth and Erika Osorio
BioCycle October 2016, Vol. 57, No. 9, p. 27

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Setting Compost Research Priorities In Vermont
Deborah Neher, University of Vermont, presenting the research study.

University of Vermont faculty members convened a group to identify research needs related to mandatory food scraps diversion policies in New England.
Craig Coker
BioCycle September 2016, Vol. 57, No. 8, p. 66

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BioEnergy Outlook: Biogas Policy Platform

Ted Niblock
BioCycle September 2016, Vol. 57, No. 8, p. 70

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Organics Recovery On Rise At University Of Alberta
Figure 1. Timeline for SUB and HUB programs

University utilizing a “characterize-implement-evaluate-adjust” approach to its Zero Waste pilot projects to optimize program performance and diversion. Part II
S. Leblanc, J. Kwasny, K. Yan and D. McCartney
BioCycle August 2016, Vol. 57, No. 7, p. 24

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Food Scraps Recovery At Year-Round Resort
Black Dirt Farm uses a custom-built dump trailer (left) pulled by a 1-ton dump truck to collect and transport separated organics from Jay Peak and other generators it services.

Jay Peak’s five restaurants have diverted over 74 tons of food scraps and soiled paper to an on-farm composting facility since April 2015.
Claire Siegrist and Athena Lee Bradley
BioCycle August 2016, Vol. 57, No. 7, p. 28

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Upgrading Biogas To Renewable Natural Gas

Feasibility analysis for California gas utility investigated current biogas upgrading technologies, focusing on availability, performance, cost and possible R&D needs.
Craig Coker
BioCycle August 2016, Vol. 57, No. 7, p. 48

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Commercial Food Waste Collection Assessment

Planning council explores voluntary and collaborative approaches with generators, collectors and processors to increase food waste recycling in the Houston-Galveston region.
E. Livingston, C. Mergo, S. Crain and M. Sines
BioCycle July 2016, Vol. 57, No. 6, p. 26

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Managing Insect Infestations In Green Waste
Examples of damage caused by polyphagous shot hole borer.

Composting and mulching facilities in California and Washington contend with quarantines and green waste management requirements to prevent further spread of pests.
Craig Coker
BioCycle July 2016, Vol. 57, No. 6, p. 28

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Toronto Moves Ahead With AD Plant Upgrade
The existing Dufferin anaerobic digester facility (left) and rendering of the upgraded plant (right).

Redevelopment of the Dufferin Organics Processing Facility will enable it to process up to 60,000 tons of residential organics annually.
Peter Gorrie
BioCycle July 2016, Vol. 57, No. 6, p. 33

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Connections: Waste No Whey
Sally Brown

Sally Brown
BioCycle July 2016, Vol. 57, No. 6, p. 37

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Space Utilization In Composting
An elevating face compost turner aerates and moves the compost during each pass using lifting faces and transverse discharge conveyors.

Optimizing space utilization is an issue composters must face when contemplating how to expand, particularly if there is limited room for a bigger pad.
Craig Coker and Gregg Hennigan
BioCycle June 2016, Vol. 57, No. 5, p. 29

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Organics Management In Western Canada
Metro uses ads animated by humanized food scrap characters for public education in its bus and transit shelters, as well as in its social media.

Two-part series on western Canada starts with an update on British Columbia and Manitoba — including a report on the first year of Metro Vancouver’s organics disposal ban. Part I
Marsha W. Johnston
BioCycle June 2016, Vol. 57, No. 5, p. 38

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Is Nutrient Trading Poised For A Surge?
Many anaerobic digestion projects that avoid nutrient runoff from feedstocks that otherwise would be land applied may be able to realize long-term revenues from nutrient credit sales.

As Chesapeake Bay states, other jurisdictions and their stakeholders move forward with nutrient trading, they may want to keep in mind some “early Emissions Trading” lessons from the air world. Part II
Michael H. Levin
BioCycle June 2016, Vol. 57, No. 5, p. 48

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Commentary: Is There A Recycling Crisis?
Richard Hertzberg

Richard Hertzberg
BioCycle June 2016, Vol. 57, No. 5, p. 51

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Connections: Color Purple
Sally Brown

Sally Brown
BioCycle June 2016, Vol. 57, No. 5, p. 54

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BioEnergy Outlook: When Push Comes To Shove

Ted Niblock BioCycle June 2016, Vol. 57, No. 5, p. 53 Usually this column is about renewable energy and climate change policy, and how changes might help or hurt the biogas industry. However, as the word “industry” implies, private enterprise will be the primary engine for transitioning our energy sources from traditional to renewable; policy……

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University Of Alberta Strives For Zero Waste
The number of material streams was simplified from six to four, and new signage was developed accordingly for the Zero Waste stations.

Campus analyzes costs, collection systems and logistics to increase diversion of organics, which will be processed at City of Edmonton’s new AD facility. Part I
J. Kwasny, S. Leblanc, K. Yan and D. McCartney
BioCycle May 2016, Vol. 57, No. 4, p. 21

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Lessons From The Birth Of Emissions Trading
BioCycle Energy

Steps taken to resolve challenges to air emissions trading decades ago contain important lessons for implementing “market-based” nutrient trades under the Clean Water Act — and hope for AD benefits under EPA’s Clean Power Plan. Part I
Michael H. Levin
BioCycle May 2016, Vol. 57, No. 4, p. 43

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Growing A Dairy … And A Digester
As part of the expansion, Norm-E-Lane installed a combined heat-and-power unit made by MTU Onsite Energy. The engine is rated at 763 kW, but is limited to producing 600 kW per the dairy’s power purchase agreement.

Norm-E-Lane Dairy in Wisconsin installed an anaerobic digester in 2007, and “outgrew” it several years later, prompting expansion and a new engine.
Nora Goldstein
BioCycle March/April 2016, Vol. 57, No. 3, p. 38

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Anaerobic Digester Anchors Community-Scale Biofuel Production
Figure 1. Carbon Intensity (CI) for diesel and substitutes, grams CO2 emitted/unit of energy adjusted for energy economy ratio (EER) (g CO2 e/MJ)

How a California city of 100,000, which generates about 25,000 tons/year (tpy) of organics, can fuel the solid waste fleet serving that community.
Rick Moore and Evan Edgar
BioCycle March/April 2016, Vol. 57, No. 3, p. 47

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Compost Bioassay Tests Show Persistent Herbicide Impacts
Phytotoxic herbicide impacts such as the curling and twisting of plant leaves appeared in Summer 2012 in gardens in the Burlington area that had been amended with compost.

University of Vermont researchers tested a total of 163 samples from 12 composting facilities in 8 separate plantings from November 2013 to August 2015.nPlant injuries were observed.
C. Coker, D. Goossen, J. Kelly, A. Hazelrigg and G. Maia
BioCycle March/April 2016, Vol. 57, No. 3, p. 53

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Commercial Compost Application On Western Washington Farms
In the 2015 research trials, compost made from yard trimmings and food scraps was applied to fields at “Farm B” at a rate of 8.6 dry tons/acre.

WSU Cooperative Extension in Snohomish County’s Compost Outreach Project has worked with over
70 farmers since 2011 doing research trials and on-farm demonstrations.
Doug Collins, Hallie Harness and Andy Bary
BioCycle March/April 2016, Vol. 57, No. 3, p. 63

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Compost Use On Perennial Fruit Crops
Compost was applied to apple trees in the Okanagan Valley (first row of trees above).

Over a decade of research on application of compost to a variety of fruit crops shows range of benefits, including disease suppression and better crop use of nitrogen.
Peter Gorrie
BioCycle March/April 2016, Vol. 57, No. 3, p. 66

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Connections: Grow Your Own
Sally Brown

Sally Brown
BioCycle March/April 2016, Vol. 57, No. 3, p. 70

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BioEnergy Outlook: Supreme Court V. Clean Power Plan

Ted Niblock
BioCycle March/April 2016, Vol. 57, No. 3, p. 71

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Low Lead Poisoning Risk From Urban Gardening
Researchers found that plants actually take up very little lead in their stems and leaves, and are safe to eat.

Recently published journal article finds low risk of lead poisoning when growing food in urban soils. Using compost is a key tool in risk mitigation.
Nora Goldstein
BioCycle February 2016, Vol. 57, No. 2, p. 26

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BioEnergy Outlook: Biogas And Environmental Justice

Ted Niblock
BioCycle February 2016, Vol. 57, No. 2, p. 38

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Residential Food Scraps Drop Off
Residents bring food scraps to the Drop Spots, where they are collected and taken to Cayuga Compost. Tompkins County provides households a tool kit that includes a countertop kitchen caddy, a supply of compostable liners and a 6-gallon transport container.

Tompkins County, New York is utilizing Drop Spots to offer food scraps diversion to residents, an economic option enabling more household participation.
Nora Goldstein
BioCycle January 2016, Vol. 57, No. 1 p.26

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