BioCycle Celebrates 60 Years
BioCycle 60th Anniversary Edition

The 60th Anniversary Edition will be a keepsake — celebrating the history and progress of the composting, organics recycling and renewable energy industries. It will include: • Composting and AD Trailblazers • Aha Moments That Shaped Organics Recycling • The Next 60 Years — Culling Trends To Predict The Future • BioCycle Gems From Jerry

Cover: BioCycle May/June 2019
BioCycle May/June 2019

Earth Care Farm in Charlestown, Rhode Island has been making high quality compost since 1977. Cover story begins on page 15. Photo courtesy of Earth Care Farm. Inset photo by Taylor Cann.

Editorial: Mission Critical
Nora Goldstein, Editor, BioCycle

Nora Goldstein
BioCycle May/June 2019, Vol. 60 No. 4, p. 4

BioCycle World
BioCycle REFOR19 Conference, Renewable Energy From Organics Recycling

BioCycle May/June 2019, Vol. 60 No. 4, p. 6

Composting Roundup
Soil Cycles of Harrisonburg, Virginia, collects local food waste via bicycle.

BioCycle May/June 2019, Vol. 60 No. 4, p. 11

Anaerobic Digest
Smithfield Foods, Inc. and Roeslein Alternative Energy (RAE) announce joint venture: Monarch Bioenergy. Partnership will produce RNG from Missouri hog farm manure, deliver ecological services and develop wildlife habitat for monarch butterflies.

BioCycle May/June 2019, Vol. 60 No. 4, p. 13

High Quality Compost Farm
The 40-year old family business was started by Michael and Betty Merner (far right), and is now owned by their daughter, Jayne Merner Senecal (3rd from right). Also pictured are several of the Merner’s grandchildren (from left to right, Cooper, Caitlyn and Kaleigh).

Forty-year old farm and composting operation is guided by the intention of creating a place to grow food and make a product that enriches the soils of New England.
Nora Goldstein
BioCycle May/June 2019, Vol. 60 No. 4, p. 15

Lean Compost Manufacturing
Tweaking the layout of an operation so processing takes place toward the front of the yard (above), and incoming material is unloaded in the back of the yard, reduces the number of times material has to be handled.

When effectively implemented, adopting lean manufacturing principles can help improve quality, bring efficiency to production and delivery times, and lower associated costs.
Matt Eul
BioCycle May/June 2019, Vol. 60 No. 4, p. 20

Winning Food Waste Reduction Strategy
Source separated kitchen food waste and material from the employee restaurant are composted at the City of San Diego’s Miramar Greenery.

What does it take for one of the largest hotels in San Diego, California, to reduce food waste?
Ana Carvalho
BioCycle May/June 2019, Vol. 60 No. 4, p. 22

Solana Center Closes The Loop
Solana Center's food cycle flow

Households, organizations and event organizers receive buckets to collect food waste and bokashi bran to mix in. Participants drop full buckets at Solana Center, where contents are composted.
Jessica Toth
BioCycle May/June 2019, Vol. 60 No. 4, p. 24

Revisiting And Reframing Risk
Biosolids Compost Exposure Pathways Assumptions

Study examines how to relate concentrations of a select group of personal care and pharmaceutical products found in biosolids and biosolids composts to concentrations in these products for normal home use.
Sally Brown
BioCycle May/June 2019, Vol. 60 No. 4, p. 27

Power Of Sustainability To Change Inmates’ Lives
The first component of the certificate program introduces students to fundamentals of organic agriculture through classroom lessons.

Collaborative noncredit certificate program provides experiential learning in composting, urban greening and sustainable land care to low-risk inmates in the Philadelphia prison system.
James F. Duffy
BioCycle May/June 2019, Vol. 60 No. 4, p. 32

Small-Scale Dairy Digester Fits The Bill
Allen Farms installed an anaerobic digester consisting of two fermentation vessels. Manure, used bed pack and crop residues from the 130-cow dairy operation are processed.

Wisconsin farm digester processes 82 percent manure, 12 percent bed pack/manure, and 6 percent food waste.
Dan Emerson
BioCycle May/June 2019, Vol. 60 No. 4, p. 36

Commentary: Dear Plastics Industry — We Are Headed For A Divorce
Kate Bailey

Kate Bailey
BioCycle May/June 2019, Vol. 60 No. 4, p. 39

Equipment News
Smalis Conveyors custom builds conveyors to fit a recycler’s specific needs.

BioCycle May/June 2019, Vol. 60 No. 4, p. 40

Cover: BioCycle March/April 2019
BioCycle March/April 2019

The BioCycle WEST COAST19 Conference Preview. Articles cover the range of topics and issues to be presented in the Workshops and Sessions.

Editorial: Panic And Prosper
Nora Goldstein, Editor, BioCycle

Nora Goldstein
BioCycle March/April 2019, Vol. 60 No. 3, p. 4

BioCycle World

BioCycle March/April 2019, Vol. 60 No. 3, p. 6

Composting Roundup
Collins Farm

BioCycle March/April 2019, Vol. 60 No. 3, p. 15

Anaerobic Digest

BioCycle March/April 2019, Vol. 60 No. 3, p. 20

Is Organic Certification Right For Your Compost?
Number of certified organic farms by state, 2016

The ability to produce a ”Listable” product greatly depends on its input materials and how those are processed. Typical composts and digestates are relatively inexpensive to List.
Ron Alexander
BioCycle March/April 2019, Vol. 60 No. 3, p. 23

Setting Rates For Organics Diversion In California
Setting Rates For Organics Diversion In California

The next few years present a paradigm shift in the handling of solid waste, and organic waste in particular, which has real impacts on programs and, consequently, the rates charged to customers.
Carrie Baxter
BioCycle March/April 2019, Vol. 60 No. 3, p. 27

Environmental Impacts Of Packaging Options
Figure 1. Material attribute evaluation framework and guide to charts

Oregon DEQ study analyzed if materials with compostable and biobased attributes consistently have lower environmental impacts than materials without the attributes.
Allaway, J. Rivin, M. Mistry and P. Canepa
BioCycle March/April 2019, Vol. 60 No. 3, p. 30

Commentary: Zero Waste Requires Visionary Thinking

Rhodes Yepsen
BioCycle March/April 2019, Vol. 60 No. 3, p. 35

Biogas To RNG Projects: What, Why And How
Figure 2. Greenhouse gas emission reduction by fuel type

With prices for renewable electricity low in many states, biogas producers are turning to the renewable natural gas marketplace. This road map is a valuable navigation tool.
Brad Pleima
BioCycle March/April 2019, Vol. 60 No. 3, p. 38

101 For Low Carbon Fuel Standard
In-state RNG projects, such as this anaerobic digestion facility in South San Francisco, are eligible under the LCFS for either self-use, direct sale as a conventional fuel replacement, or by injecting into a pipeline and demonstrating RNG use as a vehicle fuel.

California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard, which grew out of the state’s Global Warming Solutions Act, is stimulating markets for biogas, including renewable natural gas.
Paul Greene
BioCycle March/April 2019, Vol. 60 No. 3, p. 43

2019 Renewable Fuel Standard Update

Three associations, including the American Biogas Council, filed a petition in February to activate the renewable electricity pathway of the RFS. Maureen Walsh BioCycle March/April 2019, Vol. 60 No. 3, p. 46 On February 6, 2019, the RFS Power Coalition, newly formed by the American Biogas Council (ABC), Biomass Power Association (BPA) and Energy Recovery

Managing Moisture In The Desert
With strict dust control requirements, maximizing composting moisture content and using dust suppression equipment are key to operations in the desert environment.

At the City of Phoenix’s aerated composting facility, air is preconditioned with moisture to mitigate overdrying of the piles, also providing a cooler air stream to the biofilter.
Craig Coker
BioCycle March/April 2019, Vol. 60 No. 3, p. 48

Rhode To End Hunger

Rhode Island Department of Health program addresses the related issues of food wastage and state residents going hungry by connecting food donors and receivers such as pantries.
Kristy M. Whitcomb
BioCycle March/April 2019, Vol. 60 No. 3, p. 52

Practical How To Compost Guide
"Community-Scale Composting Systems" by James McSweeney

New book, Community-Scale Composting Systems, covers a spectrum of topics related to composting program development and management.
Rich Flammer
BioCycle March/April 2019, Vol. 60 No. 3, p. 54

Toronto Advances RNG Projects
The City of Toronto’s Dufferin anaerobic digestion facility generates over 5 million cubic meters/year of biogas and is scheduled to begin injecting RNG into the Enbridge pipeline by early 2020.

Biogas produced from anaerobic digestion of residential organics is on track to be upgraded to renewable natural gas via partnership with gas utility.
Peter Gorrie
BioCycle March/April 2019, Vol. 60 No. 3, p. 56

Maryland Nutrient Trading Update
The final rule bars direct trades between wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) as a means to avoid new pollution “hotspots” and requires a tighter WWTP “performance baseline” for trades of credits from WWTPs to other sources.

Recent developments in the state of Maryland show that progress can be a work in progress.
Michael H. Levin
BioCycle March/April 2019, Vol. 60 No. 3, p. 60

Connections: Beach Glass
Sally Brown

Sally Brown
BioCycle March/April 2019, Vol. 60 No. 3, p. 63

Equipment News
BioCycle WEST COAST19 Exhibit Hall

BioCycle March/April 2019, Vol. 60 No. 3, p. 64

Register Now SAVE $50: BioCycle WEST COAST19
BioCycle WEST COAST19 Conference

Infrastructure Expansion • Compost And Biogas Markets • Food Recovery
Contamination Management • Behavior Change
Register Now

Cover: BioCycle February 2019
BioCycle February 2019

The Midtfyn biogas plant in Ringe, Denmark processes 360,000 tons/year of manure and food waste. Upgraded biogas is injected into the natural gas grid.

Editorial: Essential Components
Nora Goldstein, Editor, BioCycle

Nora Goldstein
BioCycle February 2019, Vol. 60 No. 2, p. 4

BioCycle World
BioCycle WEST COAST19 Conference

BioCycle February 2019, Vol. 60 No. 2, p. 9

Composting Roundup
Current use of backyard composting in Vermont

BioCycle February 2019, Vol. 60 No. 2, p. 12

Anaerobic Digest
Rio de Janeiro City Company of Urban Cleaning's pilot anaerobic digestion plant.

BioCycle February 2019, Vol. 60 No. 2, p. 14

Composting And Microbial Inoculants
compost microbes

Adding microbial inoculants to improve temperature gain in a compost pile is examined.
Craig Coker
BioCycle February 2019, Vol. 60 No. 2, p. 16

Deep Dive Into Danish Biogas
Biogas became a political priority in Denmark as a means to control agricultural waste management problems and provide a flexible renewable energy product. (Photo on left, taken at Nature Energy Månsson biogas plant in Brande.) Receiving hall for deep litter (non-liquid manure) at the Midtfyn Biogas Plant (right).

The state of biogas in Denmark has been driven by economies of scale, standardized designs, buy-in from farmers and, not least, strong, bipartisan policy support.
Louise Hansen, Robert Spencer and Tony Barbagallo
BioCycle February 2019, Vol. 60 No. 2, p. 20

Something Is Very Right In Denmark
Trucks, each carrying 9,000 gallons of manure, connect to massive pumps and point source odor control equipment to offload into holding tanks. The trucks are cleaned and washed, then reloaded with liquid digestate.

A California Energy Commission policy advisor assesses applicability of Danish renewable gas infrastructure and economics to achieving the state’s greenhouse gas reduction goals.
Tim Olson
BioCycle February 2019, Vol. 60 No. 2, p. 29

Connections: Stink
Sally Brown

Sally Brown
BioCycle February 2019, Vol. 60 No. 2, p. 31

Equipment News
HRS Heat Exchangers’ TI series double tube heat exchanger

BioCycle February 2019, Vol. 60 No. 2, p. 32

Cover: BioCycle January 2019
BioCycle January 2019

Benefits of preventive maintenance, such as inspecting and lubricating bearings (as seen on cover), include less downtime and reduced costs.

Editorial: 2019 = 60 Years Of BioCycle
Nora Goldstein, Editor, BioCycle

Nora Goldstein
BioCycle January 2019, Vol. 60 No. 1, p. 4

BioCycle World
Dianne Saxe

BioCycle January, Vol. 60, No. 1, p. 6

Composting Roundup
Solana Center For Environmental Innovation’s food waste drop-off

BioCycle January 2019, Vol. 60 No. 1, p. 14

Anaerobic Digest

BioCycle January 2019, Vol. 60 No. 1, p. 20

Food Waste Composting Infrastructure In The U.S.
Figure 4. Composting methods utilizedat full-scale food wastecomposting facilities

A recently completed BioCycle survey identified a total of 185 full-scale food waste composting facilities in the U.S.
Nora Goldstein
BioCycle January 2019, Vol. 60 No. 1, p. 23

Managing Compost And Mulch Fires
Photos taken from the safety of a vehicle illustrate the level of devastation at the LCEC. High winds at 50 mph spread the Creek Fire through the site, quickly engulfing large equipment.

Planning for proper procedures to prevent fires, and to manage them when they occur, are key components of every facility’s operation protocol.
Craig Coker
BioCycle January 2019, Vol. 60 No. 1, p. 26

Composting Facility Maintenance
Infrared thermography uses a specialty camera (below) that displays and captures images color-coded by temperature (top, right). Users can quickly identify high temperatures on rotating equipment such as a bearing (bottom, right).

Composting facilities can develop a maintenance plan to ensure that the right resources are being used at the right time, minimizing surprises.
Jeff Ziegenbein
BioCycle January 2019, Vol. 60, No. 1, p. 29

Positioning Your Product For Sales Success
Market positioning considerations include typical characteristics of your product and how well it meets the requirements of your end markets, e.g., topdressing.

Appropriate engagement of the marketplace, and investing in sales staff and tools, are key factors in developing a successful compost marketing program.
Ron Alexander
BioCycle January 2019, Vol. 60 No. 1, p. 34

Agriculture, Compost And Water Quality Intersections
Agriculture, Compost And Water Quality Intersections

A more defined connection between compost, soil health, and water quality is vital for inclusion in predictive watershed modeling and consequently, nutrient management plans.
Tom Zimnicki
BioCycle January 2019, Vol. 60 No. 1, p. 37

The Composting Culture
CompostNow’s engagement includes: attend farmers markets, speak in classrooms, meet with city officials and other community stakeholders, partner with community farms and gardens, and tour groups through its composting locations.

Municipalities and communities of all sizes are putting forth a growing investment to bring the composting experience to the consumer.
David Paull
BioCycle January 2019, Vol. 60 No. 1, p. 39

Should My Composting Facility Invest In A Fabric Structure?
Depending on the manufacturer, fabric buildings provide a clean span design that is absent of support posts. This enables operators to arrange their composting facility for maximum efficiency.

Factors to consider are discussed in this Question and Answer article.
Jessica Batchelor
BioCycle January 2019, Vol. 60 No. 1, p. 41

Smithfield Foods Goes Big On Biogas
Preconditioned biogas from the farms is routed to Optima KV’s central gas clean-up facility (above) on Smithfield Foods’ property. The cleaned biomethane is pressurized to pipeline standards and sold to Duke Energy.

A commitment to anaerobic digestion on 90 percent of its hog finishing farms in 3 states was followed by formation of a joint venture with Dominion Energy, called Align Renewable Natural Gas.
Nora Goldstein
BioCycle January 2019, Vol. 60 No. 1, p. 44

Digester Developer Finds Sweet Spots
Aerial photo of Crescent Farm facility.

Vanguard Renewables uses an “everybody wins” approach as it builds, owns and operates anaerobic digesters on dairy farms to process food waste and manure.
Nora Goldstein
BioCycle January 2019, Vol. 60 No. 1, p. 47

Connections: Fasten Your Seatbelt
Sally Brown

Sally Brown
BioCycle January 2019, Vol. 60 No. 1, p. 50

Equipment News
Eco-Products: “Official Zero Waste Partner” of Vail Resorts

BioCycle January 2019, Vol. 60 No. 1, p. 52

New Food Waste Directory & Resources
Food Waste Directory & Resources

• Food Waste Pretreatment Directory
• State Food Waste Recycling Data Collection, Reporting Analysis
• Quantifying Existing Food Waste Composting Infrastructure in the U.S.

Cover: BioCycle Nov/Dec 2018
BioCycle November/December 2018

Composting trials with compostable food service packaging demonstrate its viability as a feedstock

Editorial: KOOL Now
Nora Goldstein, Editor, BioCycle

Nora Goldstein
BioCycle November/December 2018, Vol. 59, No. 10, p. 4

BioCycle World
Circular Charlotte: Toward a Zero Waste and Inclusive City

BioCycle November/December 2018, Vol. 59, No. 10, p. 6

Composting Roundup
Alpha Ridge Landfill (Marriottsville, MD) composting facility expanded site's sparger floor shown during construction.

BioCycle November/December 2018, Vol. 59, No. 10, p. 10

Anaerobic Digest
Vanguard Renewables named 2018 Organics Recycler of the Year by NWRA

BioCycle November/December 2018, Vol. 59, No. 10, p. 13

The Warm Hug Of Compost
In the “heating loop” warmed glycol, from the aeration pad, circulates into the pump house (1) via two variable speed and energy efficient pumps (2). This building houses the heating/cooling exchange system. Here, warmed glycol preheats domestic hot water that is used in the office and is pumped into the adjacent office/shop building. The system features manual valves (3) to switch between the compost-warmed glycol and well-water cooled glycol.

The Dirt Hugger composting facility utilizes heat recovered from active composting to warm its new
office building and mechanics shop.
Nora Goldstein
BioCycle November/December 2018, Vol. 59, No. 10, p. 16

Composting On The Last Frontier
After 2 to 3 months of composting in the bins, material is moved for curing into a windrow that is covered with breathable fabric.

Juneau Composts grew from a Master Gardener certification project into a food scraps collection and composting enterprise.
Marsha W. Johnston
BioCycle November/December 2018, Vol. 59, No. 10, p. 18

Brush Grinding And Contaminant Management
Even with household education about proper separation, SCRRRA deals with contaminants in materials dropped off by residents — including a trailer hitch.

A waste authority in Connecticut uses a mobile grinder to process brush and other yard trimmings for 12 member municipalities.
Joe Gallagher
BioCycle November/December 2018, Vol. 59, No. 10, p. 21

Workers’ Compensation In The Organics Recycling Industry
Workers’ Compensation In The Organics Recycling Industry

A refresher on workers’ compensation requirements, rates and premiums for facility owners and operators.
Craig Coker
BioCycle November/December 2018, Vol. 59, No. 10, p. 23

New Handbook On Vermicomposting
Rhonda Sherman, author of The Worm Farmer’s Handbook

The Worm Farmer’s Handbook “weaves the practical with the technical, science with art, and small-scale with large-scale exceptionally well,” writes our reviewer.
Richard Flammer
BioCycle November/December 2018, Vol. 59, No. 10, p. 31

Value Of Compostable Packaging As “Feedstock”
Compostable food service packaging was mixed with other feedstocks, e.g., yard trimmings, and run through a grinder.

Field trials at two composting facilities evaluated compostable foodservice packaging as a composting feedstock.
Rhodes Yepsen
BioCycle November/December 2018, Vol. 59, No. 10, p. 33

Upgrading Treatment Plant To Energy Net Zero
Scrubbing system (above) removes hydrogen sulfide, moisture and then siloxanes from the biogas prior to being used by the cogeneration engines. Pump trucks offload fats, oils and grease (FOG) into large storage containers (left). FOG is slowly injected into the digesters.

The City of Gresham, Oregon wastewater treatment plant generates about 10 percent more electricity than it needs via a combination of energy efficiency, codigestion and cogeneration, and a solar array.
Gregg Hayward
BioCycle November/December 2018, Vol. 59, No. 10, p. 36

Connections: Carbon Intensity
Sally Brown

Sally Brown
BioCycle November/December 2018, Vol. 59, No. 10, p. 39

Equipment News
Munson Machinery’s Screen Classifying Cutter Model SCC-15

BioCycle November/December 2018, Vol. 59, No. 10, p. 40

Cover: BioCycle October 2018
BioCycle October 2018

Special report on Curbside Collection includes:
Evaluating Options For Curbside Yard Trimmings Collection
PAYT Paves Way To Zero Waste
Strategies To Incentivize Waste Diversion

Editorial: The Final Warning
Nora Goldstein, Editor, BioCycle

Nora Goldstein
BioCycle October 2018, Vol. 59, No. 9, p. 4

BioCycle World

BioCycle October 2018, Vol. 59, No. 9, p. 6

Composting Roundup
Lexington converted an outdated, ununsed 30-acre landfill into a composting site. Operators use BACKHUS A60 compost turner and Doppstadt SM 720K trommel screen.

BioCycle October 2018, Vol. 59, No. 9, p. 12