Organic On The Front Line Of California’s Climate Resilience
Figure 1. Organics builds healthy communities from the soil up to the economy.

Fundamentally, organic farming practices, including use of compost, build healthy soils that store carbon and water — and yield food that builds healthy people.
Nora Goldstein

Composting Business Management: Net Present Value Of Composting Expenditures
Compost Business Management

Steps to compare costs when evaluating alternatives for significant expenditures such as site development or an equipment purchase. Part IV
Craig Coker

Connections: Hail To The Trees … And The Biosolids

Drawdown series continues with carbon sequestration related to trees and the benefits of adding recycled organics. Part IV
Sally Brown

COVID-19 Resources For Organics Recycling Operations

Ireland’s Cré, the Mid-Atlantic Biosolids Association (MABA), and the US Composting Council (USCC) provided their members with links to valuable guidance for managers and employees of composting and anaerobic digestion facilities, wastewater treatment plants, and biosolids recycling programs. We’ve compiled them for easy access.

Biomethane Pathway To 2030
Biomethane: The Pathway To 2030

Charlotte Morton, Chief Executive of the United Kingdom’s Anaerobic Digestion and Bioresources Association (ADBA), wrote the following in the foreword to “Biomethane: The Pathway To 2030,” an ADBA report released in early March: “Time and time again, prominent organizations with the ear of our government have highlighted biomethane’s vital role in the [current] decade of decarbonization.

ISWA Global Assessment Of Municipal Organics
Estimated quantities of MSW produced per capita per day and the contribution of mega cities

The International Solid Waste Association’s Working Group on the Biological Treatment of Waste (WGBTW) released the Global Assessment Of Municipal Organic Waste Production And Recycling in mid-March, authored by Marco Ricci-Jürgensen, Jane Gilbert and Aditi Ramola. The report summarizes global estimates of the amount of organic solid wastes produced — principally from municipal origin — and separately collected (source segregated) and treated through a composting and/or anaerobic digestion process.

COVID-19: A Biosolids Science Perspective

Remember those good old days about 6 weeks ago, when our major concern was PFAS? That all changed in Seattle a few weeks back. And the rest of the country has quickly followed suit.
Sally Brown

SB 1383: A Revolution For Organic Waste

Following a brief public comment period, regulations to implement California’s sweeping changes to organics management will be in place.
Heather Jones

Composting Business Management: Composting Facility Operating Cost Estimates
Compost Business Management

Composting is essentially a materials handling exercise. It takes a certain amount of time, at a certain cost, to perform each task in the compost manufacturing process. Part III
Craig Coker

Urban Compost Math — Calculating Carbon Offsets
King County existing program, -0.52 tons of CO2 per dry ton biosolids

Research study modeled likely rates of carbon sequestration for urban uses of compost. Applications included growing lawns, trees, urban agriculture and for use alongside urban roadways.
Sally Brown

Composting Business Management: Capital Cost Of Composting Facility Construction
Composting pad construction

Main categories include site development, and equipment for processing and process monitoring. Part II
Craig Coker

Counting Food Waste Tons Landfilled In Central Ohio

he Solid Waste Authority of Central Ohio (SWACO) released the findings of its 2019 Waste Characterization, which documented that up to 76% of the material currently being sent to the Franklin County Sanitary Landfill could be recycled or composted.

Seeking Farmer Perspectives On AD
Survey on “Farmer Perspectives & Investment in Anaerobic Digestion

Risa Lewis, an undergraduate in the College of Agriculture, Health and Natural Resources program at the University of Connecticut, has focused her senior thesis on on-farm anaerobic digestion in the Northeastern United States. A component of Lewis’ thesis is to conduct a survey on “Farmer Perspectives & Investment in Anaerobic Digestion”.

March 5 Vote On New Jersey Food Waste Recycling Bill
New Jersey food waste composting

State Senate takes up legislation that requires large generators to source separate and recycle food waste.

Composting Business Management: Revenue Forecasts For Composters

Article series provides business tools to evaluate financial and nonfinancial factors related to starting, managing and growing composting facilities. Part I
Craig Coker

Connections: Compost — When You Can’t Decay In Place
Sally Brown

Adding recycled organics to soils lets them work in overdrive — enabling them to accomplish the tasks set out for soils in the Drawdown list. Part III
Sally Brown

RNG Fueling On The Grow
Emission calculator

Clean Energy Fuels Corp. delivered 143 million gallons of Redeem™ Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) in 2019, due in part to a number of corporate and municipal contracts. Redeem is derived from capturing biogenic methane produced by landfills and anaerobic digesters at dairies and wastewater treatment plants. In 2019, Clean Ene

Composting Foundation’s Research Scholarships Available

The Composting Council Research & Education Foundation (CCREF) is offering scholarships to undergraduate through PhD students studying at a college or university in the U.S. interested in doing compost-related research projects.

EPA Releases PFAS Action Plan
The three primary phases of the RD 4 process

The U.S. EPA has taken several steps to implement its PFAS Action Plan aimed at protecting drinking water.

Connections: Compost And Methane Avoidance
Sally Brown

How compost earned its #60 ranking in Drawdown. Part II
Sally Brown

Letter To The Editor: Oregon DEQ And Packaging LCAs
David Allaway

Recent BioCycle CONNECT Editorial misrepresents some of agency’s research.
David Allaway, Senior Policy Analyst, Oregon DEQ

Economics Of Advanced Biofuels
Advanced Biofuels — Potential for Cost Reduction

IEA Bioenergy’s new report, “Advanced Biofuels – Potential for Cost Reduction,” acknowledges the gap between the cost of the advanced biofuels and current fuel prices, and explains how this gap can be reduced in the medium term through process improvements in designing, building and operating plants, financing costs reduction, and technology learning.

26 Years Of Compost Week In Canada
2020 Poster

Compost Week got its start in 1995 in part when the Compost Council of Canada (CCC) turned the popularity of a great image that became a sweatshirt as speakers’ gifts at a workshop into “COMPOST AWARENESS WEEK”, recalls Susan Antler, Executive Director of CCC.

School Waste Characterization Study
South Carolina School Food Waste

To get a more concrete idea about solid waste composition at the schools, the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) characterized the solid waste generated throughout one day at 6 public schools in the state.

Potential Game-Changer For RINs “Waivers”

Avalanche of small refinery RFS economic hardship “waivers” may be coming to an end after court ruling.
Michael H. Levin

Connections: Can Compost Draw Down Carbon?
Sally Brown

Series examines all the ways compost reduces CO2 in the atmosphere. Part I
Sally Brown

Design Plans For Low Cost Rotary Drum

A low-tech rotary drum composting unit to compost food waste is in use at several schools. The design is free to download.
Bob Spencer

Third Tier Of NYC Businesses Added To Organics Regulations
NYC Commercial Organics

The third tier of organics regulations for New York City (NYC) businesses has been signed into law and will be hitting the streets on July 31, 2020, reports Common Ground Compost, which offers source separation set-up, training and organics collection services. The following types of businesses are being added to the existing regulations, requiring them

Economics Of Backyard Chickens
Chicken dollar

Maureen Breen is president of Philadelphia Backyard Chickens and an advocate for feeding food scraps to chickens. She also supports regulatory changes in Philadelphia to allow for the urban chickens, which is prohibited at this time.

[Not Quite Healthy] State Of Curbside Recycling
State Of Curbside Recycling

The Recycling Partnership (TRP) released the 2020 State of Curbside Recycling Report in mid-February, and the state of the recycling union is not great — although the potential to reverse that is more promising. More than 20 million tons of curbside recyclable materials are disposed annually, notes the report.

Veteran Compost Hits 10-Year Milestone

Compost manufacturer collects commercial and residential food waste in the Baltimore and Washington, D.C. metro areas.
Nora Goldstein

Growing The Dairy Biogas-To-RNG Supply
Construction Vanguard Renewables Farm Powered Anaerobic Digester

Strategic partnership between Dominion Energy and Vanguard Renewables to build dairy digesters to produce RNG.
Nora Goldstein

Letter To The Editor: Can Scalable Organics Diversion Happen?
Rhodes Yepsen

Letter To The Editor: Can Scalable Organics Diversion Happen?
Executive Director, Biodegradable Products Institute, Inc.

Ann Arbor Keeps Residents Informed About PFAS
City of Ann Arbor PFAS Fact Sheet

The City of Ann Arbor, Michigan’s Compost Facility PFAS Fact Sheet — “Keeping Our Customers Informed About PFAS” — includes frequently asked questions about PFAS in compost.

LCFS Accredited Verifiers Announced
Low carbon fuel standard

California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) is designed to decrease the carbon intensity of the state’s transportation fuel pool and provide an increasing range of low carbon and renewable alternatives (including from renewable natural gas), which reduce petroleum dependency and achieve air quality benefits.

Maximizing Economic Return On AD Investments

Researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) and the University of Wisconsin, Madison have developed a computational model that could boost investment in farm-based sustainable energy projects by allowing investors to more accurately predict whether a project will turn a profit.

Editorial: The 2020 Compostable Packaging Narrative
Nora Goldstein, BioCycle Editor

I’m going to get right to the point. It is 2020, and it is time for a new narrative on compostable packaging.
Nora Goldstein

Treating PFAS Chemicals At Composting, AD Sites
Figure 2. Ion Exchange. (mage courtesy of USEPA

Review of membrane separation and ion exchange processes to treat contact water/leachate or groundwater to remove PFAS chemicals.
Craig Coker

Connections: Time To Go All The Way
Sally Brown

It is time to decide if you’re ready to go all the way. It could feel so good. I’m talking about contaminants in food scraps.
Sally Brown

Vermont’s Universal Recycling Law Update
Estimated Vermont Food Scrap Management Need vs. Capacity 2020

As of July 2020, no food waste can be disposed in the landfill in Vermont, including the residential stream.

Compost Use Workshop At BIOCYCLE CONNECT WEST 2020
UC Davis Russell Ranch

BioCycle and the University of California, Davis Agricultural Sustainability Institute are excited to announce: “Compost Use In Agriculture: Healthy Soils, Sequestering Carbon,” on Monday, March 30, 2020.

New Report: Business Strategies For Codigestion
Food Waste Co-Digestion at Water Resource Facilities

A new report provides insights about the strategies water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) have used to address the range of risks and impediments they face in adopting codigestion.

BPI’s New Standard On Fluorinated Chemicals In Effect
BPI’s updated logo improves labeling of compostable products and distinguishes them from conventional ones.

BPI’s new standard for fluorinated chemicals went into effect on January 1, 2020. Products may no longer be claimed as BPI Certified, whether on the product itself, or on a product’s packaging or marketing materials, unless it meets all conditions of the rule, including no intentionally added fluorinated chemicals (as demonstrated in Safety Data Sheets). 

Draft Report On California SB 1383 Costs Of Compliance

CalRecycle invites stakeholders to review and provide feedback on a draft report, “SB 1383 Local Services Rates Analysis,” submitted by R3 Consulting Group as part of a study completed under a CalRecycle contract.

Deploying Capital To Help Organics Recyclers Scale
Nikhil Garg. Aries Clean Energy facility—one of Spring Lane Capital’s early investments.

Private equity firm focuses on catalytic project capital investments in the energy, water, food and waste industries.
Nora Goldstein

Treatment Of PFAS-Contaminated Composting Site Runoff
Figure 2. Flocculation of fine particles with a polymer followed by a quiescent settling chamber or tank

2020 PFAS Update Series, Part II
Requirements in Minnesota for treatment of composting site “contact water” that contains PFAS prompted analysis of available technologies.
Craig Coker

BioCycle World

• School Food Recovery Act
• Collective Adoption Of Sustainable Behavior
• GHG Emissions Reductions In Massachusetts

Composting Roundup
London Correctional Institution composting facility

• New Composting Facility At Ohio Correctional Institution
• CalRecycle Adopts Mandatory Composting Services Regulations

Anaerobic Digest

• RNG Market Analysis
• SoCalGas Pushes Ahead With RNG

California Becomes First State To Mandate Universal Composting Services For Residents And Businesses
Green waste, food scraps and manure are delivered six days a week and piled into a windrow using a front-end loader.

Three years after California’s Short-Lived Climate Pollutant Reduction Strategy (SB 1383, Lara) was signed into law, formal regulations were adopted by the California Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery (CalRecycle) at a public meeting today and will be transmitted to the Office of Administrative Law for final codification.

Connections: Compost + Rainwater Infiltration
Sally Brown

It’s all about increasing soil pore space.
Sally Brown

Managing PFAS Chemicals In Composting And Anaerobic Digestion
Sampling For PFAS

2020 PFAS Update Series, Part I
New series explores ramifications of PFAS in recycled organics and process storm water — and technology options to treat the contamination. Part I
Craig Coker

Biogas Tax Credits Resurrected
Anaerobic digesters producing electricity quality for PTC and ITC tax extender credits.

Under new law tax credits come to life again, for some anaerobic digesters.
Michael H. Levin

Equipment News
BDP agitator (left) installed at the Bennington WWTP, which turns material as it moves down the composting bays (right).

• Agitated Bay Biosolids Facility Back On Line

Financing Composting Infrastructure
Food waste and yard trimmings are composted Greenville County's Twin Chimneys facility, Atlas's first composting operation.

South Carolina-based Atlas Organics, Inc. has funded its early and growth stages with venture/private equity capital investments.
Nora Goldstein

Editorial: Does Food Waste = Contamination?
Nora Goldstein, BioCycle Editor

There is a distinct air of inevitability that introducing food waste automatically introduces plastic bags, packaging, compostable product lookalikes, etc.

BioCycle World
Bernie Sanders at the "Combating Climate Change with Organic and Regenerative Agriculture,” forum, held in Story City, Iowa on December 5, 2019.

• Presidential Candidates Weigh In On Soil Health
• Food Waste Reduction For Greener Schools
• No Final Vote On New Jersey’s Food Waste Legislation

Composting Roundup
Kesiah Brascom, OffBeet Compost

• Cafeteria To Composting In Massachusetts Schools
• New Composting Infrastructure In Pennsylvania
• University To Compost Food Waste In 2020

Anaerobic Digest
Two-Stage Linear Vortex™” digester at Prairies Edge Dairy Farms in Fair Oaks, Indiana

• Indiana Dairy Farm Updates Its Digester System
• Parity For Biogas

Paying For PFAS Clean Up
Ned Beecher

Ned Beecher, Special Projects Manager at the North East Biosolids & Residuals Association (, has spent the bulk of the past several years in the land of PFAS, educating the organics recycling community, regulators, and many others about these complex and pervasive compounds.

Top 10 Composting Trends In 2020

Organics disposal bans and tackling contamination are among the leading trends, nationally and regionally.
Nora Goldstein & Craig Coker

Editorial: Let’s Connect
Nora Goldstein, BioCycle Editor

The inaugural edition of BioCycle CONNECT®, the new BioCycle for a new decade, is being delivered January 8, 2020. We’ll be coming to you just about every week in 2020 with new and timely content on organics recycling projects, programs, policies, and practices — as well as dust off some oldies but goodies from BioCycle’s 60 years of article archives.

Connections: Compost + Cannabis
Sally Brown

While indoor growing may be done in the blindingly bright light, the industry as a whole is just coming out from the shadows. As an industry, composters can work with cannabis growers to reduce their environmental footprint and even improve product quality.
Sally Brown

BioCycle World
Food Waste, 1996-2017

• Florida Needs More Organics Recycling To Hit 2020 Goal
• NRDC’s Food Matters Toolkit
• Carbon Storage In Soil Protocol — Jan. 15 Webinar

Anaerobic Digest

• Pennsylvania WWTP Fills Food Waste Recycling Demand
• Unlocking Global Biogas Potential
• RNG Supply Assessment

Composting And Anaerobic Digestion Infrastructure Investment Insights
Atlas truck

Infrastructure news in December 2019 highlights organics recycling opportunities.

Commentary: Compostable Products Have A Role
Compostable products

The reason that “Recycle” is one of the 3 R’s is that single-use packaging cannot be eliminated overnight. Recycling can be part of the broader solution, so long as we are actually keeping the material out of landfills and the environment, and getting it authentically recycled or composted.

New Jersey Food Waste Recycling — Countdown To January 14
New Jersey food waste composting

The New Jersey Legislature is in the midst of a lame duck session that ends on January 14, 2020. Three pieces of food waste legislation are still pending and could be passed by the Legislature over the next several weeks. The three bills differ in key respects, and are based in part on legislation that has been enacted in other states.

Cover: BioCycle November/December 2019

BioCycle CONNECT, the new BioCycle for the new decade, captures our transition from print issues to e-issues.

Editorial: The World Needs To BioCycle
Nora Goldstein, Editor, BioCycle

Nora Goldstein
BioCycle November/December 2019, Vol. 60 No. 8, p. 4

BioCycle World
Vermont Phosphorus Innovation Challenge

BioCycle November/December 2019, Vol. 60 No. 8, p. 6

Composting Roundup
Carbon sequestration testing

BioCycle November/December 2019, Vol. 60 No. 8, p. 10

Anaerobic Digest
Total capacity for processing food waste and total amount of food waste processed by digester type

BioCycle November/December 2019, Vol. 60 No. 8, p. 14

Is Your Yard Trimmings Composting Site Food Waste Ready?
food waste, yard trimmings composting site

A new Community Toolkit walks municipal officials and facility operators through a series of considerations to determine if introducing food waste streams is a good fit.
Nora Goldstein and Coryanne Mansell
BioCycle November/December 2019, Vol. 60 No. 8, p. 17

Compost And Plant Disease Suppression
Magnification of pathogenic Rhizoctonia solani isolated from soil on an organic vegetable farm in Vermont.

A microbial, community ecology approach to design compost amendments creates more reliable and resilient methods to suppress globally distributed soilborne pathogens.
Deborah A. Neher
BioCycle November/December 2019, Vol. 60 No. 8, p. 22

Music Festivals Amp Up Organics Recycling Game
Food waste and certified compostable products were accepted in the compostables bin (right). Compost Crusader, based in Milwaukee, composted the materials.

Farm Aid has greatly increased organics diversion since 2007. Inspired by its partnership with Farm Aid, Live Nation announced its zero waste goal in September 2018.
Stephanie Katsaros
BioCycle November/December 2019, Vol. 60 No. 8, p. 26

Comparison Of Compost Laboratory Results
Electrical conductivity measures all soluble nutrients in compost using a meter like the one shown above. The analysis does not differentiate between salts that are beneficial to soil health, and those that have negative impacts.

Identical samples of two composts were sent to 6 labs for testing and analysis. Results highlight differences between using the national TMECC standards versus other test methods.
Charles Duprey
BioCycle November/December 2019, Vol. 60 No. 8, p. 29

BioCycle Trailblazers Finale: Biowaste Composting Trailblazers in Germany And Austria
BioCycle Trailblazers

Source separated organics collection and composting in Europe, and establishing standards for compost, were pioneered by these BioCycle Trailblazers.
Johannes Biala
BioCycle November/December 2019, Vol. 60 No. 8, p. 33

Sanitation Districts Gear Up For Food Waste Codigestion
Food waste from commercial generators is loaded into a hopper with augers that move the material to the bioseparators.

Los Angeles County began operating its commercial food waste preprocessing facility. The slurry will be digested at the county’s Joint Water Pollution Control Plant.
Kelly Sarber
BioCycle November/December 2019, Vol. 60 No. 8, p. 37