Illinois Law To Increase Compost Use On State Funded Projects
Illinois Environmental Council

HB 4790 will help create new market for compost.

U.S. EPA Launches Excess Food Opportunities Map
U.S. EPA Food Opportunities Map

The map identifies more than 500,000 potential generators of excess food (e.g. correctional facilities, educational institutions, healthcare facilities, hospitality industry, food manufacturers and processors, and food wholesalers and distributors) and estimated generation quantities, as well as over 4,000 potential recipients of excess food (e.g. anaerobic digestion and composting facilities, food banks).

Composting Roundup
Solana Center joined forces with the County of San Diego and Hidden Resources in 2016 to create an introductory mid-scale composting workshop series that included two workshops, a hands-on build and six field trip options.

BioCycle October 2017, Vol. 58, No. 9, p. 11

Phoenix Composting Facility Rises From Desert Floor
Aeration piping is housed in a gravel bed below the concrete slab with nozzles flush with the slab surface. The aeration system can be run in all positive, all negative, or in a reversing positive-negative loop.

New 55,000 tons/year facility currently processes yard trimmings, but is gradually incorporating commercial food waste.
Craig Coker
BioCycle October 2017, Vol. 58, No. 9, p. 17

The State Of Organics Recycling In The U.S.

BioCycle asked states to complete an organics recycling “Snapshot Survey” to collect most recent data on composting, anaerobic digestion and quantities of organics diverted.
Nora Goldstein
BioCycle October 2017, Vol. 58, No. 9, p. 22

On-Farm Composting Hits Zoning Hurdle
Howard County public hearing on a zoning regulation amendment (ZRA) for on-farm composting included testimony in support of the ZRA by Linda Bilsens Brolis of the Institute for Local Self-Reliance (inset).

Under Maryland’s composting regulations, farms that meet the state’s exemption must still comply with local zoning ordinances.
Marsha Johnston
BioCycle October 2017, Vol. 58, No. 9, p. 40

Breaking News: September Webinars Of Interest

• Real Estate And Sustainable Soil Management
• Now What? Preparing for China’s Waste Ban
• Business Models For Community Composting

BioCycle World
NYC Food Waste Fair

BioCycle September 2017, Vol. 58, No. 8, p. 6

Composting Roundup
Atlas Organics' Compost House program uses 5-gallon collection pails with a compostable liner.

BioCycle September 2017, Vol. 58, No. 8, p. 16

BioCycle World
Encore's condensate recovery unit

BioCycle August 2017, Vol. 58, No. 7, p. 6

Composting Roundup
Central Soils' (New Zealand) Loadscan volumetric scanner

BioCycle August 2017, Vol. 58, No. 7, p. 13

Increasing Composting Infrastructure In The Nation’s Capital
Approximately 60 tons/year of food scraps are composted through the D.C. Parks & Recreation Department’s (DPR) Community Compost Cooperative Network.

A recently released feasibility study analyzed options for recycling the District of Columbia’s food scraps and yard trimmings.
Marsha Johnston and Craig Coker
BioCycle August 2017, Vol. 58, No. 7, p. 21

Residential Organics Diversion In Toronto
Source separated organics collection is available to 65 percent of Toronto’s multifamily residential buildings.

Almost 160,000 tons of source separated organics were collected for anaerobic digestion and/or composting in 2016. About 78% came from households.
Peter Gorrie
BioCycle August 2017, Vol. 58, No. 7, p. 24

Composting Roundup
Circle Compost's collection and composting

BioCycle July 2017, Vol. 58, No. 6, p. 11

South Carolina Convention Center Tackles Food Waste
The Columbia Metropolitan Convention Center, with the help of its chef, Tommy Kasperski (second from right) and Atlas Organics, diverted 18,000 pounds via donation and composting in the first year of the program.

Chef assists clients with accurate food ordering. Surplus is donated, and scraps are diverted to a composting facility.
Katrina Mendrey
BioCycle July 2017, Vol. 58, No. 6, p. 19

Liquid Manure And Digestate Composting
Figure 2. Turning and aeration screws along the bottom of the traveling bridge

Researchers in Italy examined fate of nitrogenous compounds during composting to meet EU nitrate limit of 152 lbs/acre.
Alessandro Chiumenti and Craig Coker
BioCycle July 2017, Vol. 58, No. 6, p. 23

Composting Aeration Floor Functions And Designs
Figure 1. Maldistribution of air flow

Adequate air delivery and distribution are key to an optimized composting process. Design considerations are provided. Part II
Craig Coker and Tim O’Neill
BioCycle July 2017, Vol. 58, No. 6, p. 28

Organics Recycling Lands At Major Airports
SEA-TAC International Airport, servicing Seattle, accepts pre and postconsumer food waste from concessionaires and at public kiosks (above) in concourse food courts.

Where local infrastructure exists, systems are being put in place to make composting an easy addition
to waste diversion programs.
Katrina Mendrey
BioCycle June 2017, Vol. 58, No. 5, p. 23

Aeration Floor Fundamentals
Figure 1. Air flow in a compost pile

Adequate air delivery and distribution are keys to an optimized composting process. In forced air systems, the aeration floor is a key element of that optimization. Part I
Craig Coker and Tim O’Neill
BioCycle June 2017, Vol. 58, No. 5, p. 30

Maryland To Explore A Decentralized Composting Infrastructure

Governor Hogan Signs Two Bills – HB171/SB99 & HB1349 – to Advance Food Waste Recovery and Ensure Compostable Plastics Meet Standards

Composting Roundup
Gail Kozel Foley in malt field

Pale Ale, With Boost From Compost • District Ramps Up Composting, Food Waste Diversion • Composting Foundation Seeks Young Investigators • Soil-To-Soil Textile Production
BioCycle May 2017, Vol. 58, No. 4, p. 12

Depackaging At Solid Waste Transfer Station
Storage area for packaged dry foods such as bread and cereal, to be loaded into the Scott Turbo Separator, and recovered for animal feed. An entire pallet of packaged food, inside a large cardboard box, can be tipped into the hopper for processing.

A Massachusetts trash hauling and recycling company invested in a mechanical separation system for food waste, opening up outlets for the processed material.
Bob Spencer and Morgan Casella
BioCycle May 2017, Vol. 58, No. 4, p. 21

Biosolids Composting On Florida’s Emerald Coast
ECUA uses the Modified Static Aerobic Pile composting method, which incorporates a Harvest Quest inoculant. A Backhus compost turner mixes the blend of yard trimmings and biosolids (3:1 ratio, by volume) and forms a windrow (above). Inoculant is added, and the windrow is capped with a layer of screened overs or freshly ground yard trimmings.

Emerald Coast Utilities Authority did the math and determined that composting its biosolids and yard trimmings and selling the compost made the most economic sense.
Mitch Kessler and Nathalie Bowers
BioCycle May 2017, Vol. 58, No. 4, p. 33

Canadian City Ready To Launch AD And Composting Facility
Surrey has a 3-cart residential curbside collection system with organics picked up weekly, while recyclables and garbage are collected on alternate weeks.

The City of Surrey, British Columbia will be opening its 127,000 tons/year food waste and yard trimmings organics recycling operation in June.
Peter Gorrie
BioCycle May 2017, Vol. 58, No. 4, p. 47

BioCycle Live: BioCycle EAST COAST17 Keynote Speaker Kathryn Garcia
Kathryn Garcia, Commissioner, New York City Department Of Sanitation speaks at BioCycle EAST COAST17 Conference, April 5, 2017, Baltimore, Maryland

April 5, 2017 • Baltimore, MD
Intro and closing: Nora Goldstein, Editor, BioCycle
Speaker: Kathryn Garcia, Commissioner, New York City Department Of Sanitation
Presentation Title: Bullish On Organics Recycling

BioCycle Live: BioCycle EAST COAST17 Keynote Speaker Rod Tyler
Rod Tyler. Founder And Inventor, Filtrexx International speaks at BioCycle EAST COAST17 Conference, April 5, 2017, Baltimore, Maryland

April 5, 2017 • Baltimore, MD
Intro and closing: Nora Goldstein, Editor, BioCycle
Speaker: Rod Tyler, Founder And Inventor Filtrexx International
Presentation Title: What’s Your “Big Mac®”?

What’s Your “Big Mac®”?
Palletizable Filtrexx Soxx™ that did not slide when stacked on pallets allowed rapid advancement of palletization, which led to scale, which led to what Rod Tyler calls Filtrexx’s “Big Mac®.”

Compost marketing entrepreneur grew a company that today uses over a million cubic yards of compost annually.
BioCycle March/April 2017, Vol. 58, No. 3, p. 26

Postmortem Of A Food Scraps Composting Facility
Black Bear Composting (BBC) stopped accepting new materials for composting in December 2016. It is open to sell remaining compost.

Founder and owner of Black Bear Composting in Crimora, Virginia, which closed its composting operation but continues to offer organics collection, relates his experiences and lessons learned.
Eric Walter
BioCycle March/April 2017, Vol. 58, No. 3, p. 54

Particle Size Reduction Strategies
Doppstadt AK 530 high speed grinder with AR400 face-hardened hammers at Calvert Wood Recycling

Grinding strategies are driven by business priorities, feedstock types and quantities, compost mix ratios, product markets, sales seasonality and the weather.
Craig Coker
BioCycle March/April 2017, Vol. 58, No. 3, p. 58

Mesophillic Static Pile Composting Of Animal Carcasses
Figure 1. Cross section of aboveground burial system

MSPC offers many of the benefits of traditional on-site burial while minimizing the potential for environmental impact.
Gary Flory and Robert Peer
BioCycle March/April 2017, Vol. 58, No. 3, p. 65

Composting Roundup
Perdue Farms composting

BioCycle February 2017, Vol. 58, No. 2, p. 13

Advancing Composting In Tennessee
Montgomery Bell State Park composts preconsumer food prep scraps, coffee filters and tea bags from the park’s restaurant.

Grants and new rules help facilitate start-up of composting operations, establishing a framework to improve organics management in the state.
Alle Crampton
BioCycle February 2017, Vol. 58, No. 2, p. 19

County Expands Food Waste Composting Site
Manufacturers are responding to the increased demand for vehicles that can service commercial and residential source separated organics collection.

The Ulster County (NY) Resource Recovery Agency recently expanded its pilot composting facility to service organics haulers.
Marsha Johnston
BioCycle February 2017, Vol. 58, No. 2, p. 21

Vermont Processor Tackles High Moisture Feedstocks
TAM Organics receives short cotton fiber from Crane Currency, which it blends with a dry feedstock from Ecovative Design (left, in chunks next to pile) and commercial food waste (above).

Increasing its feedstock volume with paper currency manufacturing waste brought challenges — and new opportunities.
Marsha Johnston
BioCycle February 2017, Vol. 58, No. 2, p. 27

Composting Roundup
10 Steps to successful school composting

BioCycle January 2017, Vol. 58, No. 1, p. 14

Regional Composter Confronts Contamination
The variable speed fan on the wind sifter (above on right) was retrofitted to reduce product losses on the reject side from 50% to less than 20%.

Washington State composting facility uses multiple approaches to reduce contamination in residential and commercial food waste loads.
Craig Coker
BioCycle January 2017, Vol. 58, No. 1, p. 35

Odors Sideline Anaerobic Digestion And Composting Operation
The Harvest Fraser Richmond Organics facility outside of Vancouver, BC processed about 248,000 tons of source separated organics and yard trimmings in 2015.

Richmond, British Columbia facility scales back operations while making significant improvements to its materials handling and odor control systems.
Peter Gorrie
BioCycle January 2017, Vol. 58, No. 1, p. 60

Composting Roundup
St. John’s University’s Somat Remote Waste Pulping System Model SPC-50

BioCycle December 2016, Vol. 57, No. 11, p. 10

Professionally Certifying Compost Operations Managers
One of the certification prerequisites is having attended a compost operations course of at least three days’ duration.

In October, the Certification Commission of the US Composting Council launched the first professional certification in the U.S. for compost operations managers.
Cary Oshins
BioCycle December 2016, Vol. 57, No. 11, p. 27

Breaking News: Composting Collaborative Launch, Nov. 17, 2016

Composting Collaborative was officially launched on November 17 in Washington, D.C. The Collaborative was created by GreenBlue, in partnership with BioCycle and the US Composting Council, to drive sustainable materials management of organics and all compostables.

Critical Operations Go Under Cover

Fabric buildings are employed in the organics recycling industry for feedstock receiving and mixing, compost storage and blending, and most recently, to house food waste depackaging.
Nora Goldstein
BioCycle November 2016, Vol. 57, No. 10, p. 14

Sampling Plans For Organics Recycling Facilities
Figure 1. Representative sampling points in a compost windrow. Samples should be taken at several points along the axis, and at various depths of the windrow.

Understanding what you’re sampling for at composting and anaerobic digestion facilities dictates sampling procedures.
Craig Coker
BioCycle November 2016, Vol. 57, No. 10, p. 21

Composting Roundup

BioCycle October 2016, Vol. 57, No. 9, p. 11

North Carolina’s Compost Learning Lab
The USCC and the NC Composting Council use the CL2 for their annual Compost Operators Training Course.

Based at NC State University, the facility has more than 20 different types of backyard composting and vermicomposting units and a small ASP operation.
Rich Flammer
BioCycle October 2016, Vol. 57, No. 9, p. 24

Composting Tool For Drug Addiction Rehab
Paper, food scraps from grocery stores and yard trimmings from the main floral distributor in the city of São Pedro de Alcântara are composted at SSRTC.

Clinic in Brazil uses participation in composting program as therapy for its patients.
Ana Carvalho
BioCycle October 2016, Vol. 57, No. 9, p. 25

Adult Care Home Launches Food Scraps Diversion
TERI clients add mulch to the compost bin (left) and check the moisture in the mix to ensure enough water is added (right).

The McNealy House in Oceanside, California, a home for individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities, established an on-site fermentation and composting program.
Jessica Toth and Erika Osorio
BioCycle October 2016, Vol. 57, No. 9, p. 27

Growing Community Collection And Composting In Philadelphia
Bennett Compost uses a Toro stand-behind mini skid steer loader to help manage the aerated static piles. A portion of the compost and soil blends (inset) produced are given back to customers as a benefit.

City Sprouts and Bennett Compost service households and businesses with food scraps collection, and compost most of the organics at their small-scale operations.
Nora Goldstein
BioCycle October 2016, Vol. 57, No. 9, p. 35

Seattle City Council Bans Greenwashing Of Noncompostable Bags

On Oct. 3, the Seattle City Council voted unanimously to pass an ordinance that bans use of misleading green- and brown-tined noncompostable plastic bags.

Composting Roundup
Walkway Marathon’s Green Team achieved a waste diversion rate of 73 percent

BioCycle September 2016, Vol. 57, No. 8, p. 15

Food Scraps Recovery At Year-Round Resort
Black Dirt Farm uses a custom-built dump trailer (left) pulled by a 1-ton dump truck to collect and transport separated organics from Jay Peak and other generators it services.

Jay Peak’s five restaurants have diverted over 74 tons of food scraps and soiled paper to an on-farm composting facility since April 2015.
Claire Siegrist and Athena Lee Bradley
BioCycle August 2016, Vol. 57, No. 7, p. 28

Small-Scale Composter Grows With Food Scraps
Information provided to Adam’s Hometown Market’s grocers selling New England Compost’s bagged compost that includes food scraps from those stores.

New England Compost has been steadily growing its collection and composting service since featured in BioCycle last fall.
Dan Emerson
BioCycle August 2016, Vol. 57, No. 7, p. 35

Composting Roundup
Joe’s Organics collects over 2 tons/week of food scraps from Austin restaurants and sustainable businesses

BioCycle July 2016, Vol. 57, No. 6, p. 9
Hawaii County Council Oks $10m For Composting Facility; Fish Compost Raises Vegetable Yields; Food Scraps Kiosks

Managing Insect Infestations In Green Waste
Examples of damage caused by polyphagous shot hole borer.

Composting and mulching facilities in California and Washington contend with quarantines and green waste management requirements to prevent further spread of pests.
Craig Coker
BioCycle July 2016, Vol. 57, No. 6, p. 28

Composting Roundup
Jack Johnson

BioCycle June 2016, Vol. 57, No. 5, p. 10 Stamford, Connecticut: Celebrities Promote Composting As part of its ongoing educational mission, Sustainable America has released a mini documentary in which popular singer Jack Johnson teaches Hawaiian school children why they should compost. In the video, Johnson visits Lanikai Elementary Public Charter School in Oahu and

BioCycle Portals To Organics Recycling In U.S. & Canada
New home page BioCycle

Updated BioCycle and the brand new BioCycle and are launched and open for listings.
Nora Goldstein
BioCycle June 2016, Vol. 57, No. 5, p. 16

Space Utilization In Composting
An elevating face compost turner aerates and moves the compost during each pass using lifting faces and transverse discharge conveyors.

Optimizing space utilization is an issue composters must face when contemplating how to expand, particularly if there is limited room for a bigger pad.
Craig Coker and Gregg Hennigan
BioCycle June 2016, Vol. 57, No. 5, p. 29

BioCycle Equipment & Systems Directory 2016

BioCycle’s Equipment and Systems Directory 2016 — a guide to equipment and services for the composting, anaerobic digestion and organics recycling industries — is available online exclusively.

Finding Common Ground In Quest For Clean Organics
A research study provided households with compostable Ziploc bags and tracked them from homes to a commercial composting site via the grade school. Material on tarp represents an audit sample of food scraps from a school cafeteria.

A compost manufacturer and a consumer packaged goods manufacturer collaborate on a compostable bag research trial in Washington State.
Susan Thoman and Jeff Zettle
BioCycle May 2016, Vol. 57, No. 4, p. 35

Composting Roundup
Compost Ninja, an organics collection business founded by Aaron Hanson.

BioCycle March/April 2016, Vol. 57, No. 3, p. 14

Tackling Contamination In Food Scraps Stream
Contaminants in food scrap stream.

Workgroup in Washington State that includes local officials, organics recyclers and food and packaging industry representatives is identifying solutions to contaminant reduction.
Craig Coker
BioCycle March/April 2016, Vol. 57, No. 3, p. 29

Public/Private Partnership Creates Composting Infrastructure
The 52-acre Martinez II facility includes a 6-acre composting pad, 8-acre mulch pad, storm water retention pond, and additional land for other recycling activities and a new tree farm.

San Antonio River Authority selected Texas Disposal Systems to build, own and operate a windrow facility on a former 52-acre biosolids land application site.
Jim Doersam and Paul Gregory
BioCycle March/April 2016, Vol. 57, No. 3, p. 34

Campus Composting Closes Food System Loop
A 4-bin composting system (left) was installed at the campus’ newly constructed Intergenerational Garden (right).

Cuyamaca College in San Diego County involves young children, students and seniors in composting
and gardening on campus.
Rich Flammer
BioCycle March/April 2016, Vol. 57, No. 3, p. 41

Commentary: Compostable Products: 2016 Outlook
Rhodes Yepsen

Rhodes Yepsen
BioCycle March/April 2016, Vol. 57, No. 3, p. 51

Compost Bioassay Tests Show Persistent Herbicide Impacts
Phytotoxic herbicide impacts such as the curling and twisting of plant leaves appeared in Summer 2012 in gardens in the Burlington area that had been amended with compost.

University of Vermont researchers tested a total of 163 samples from 12 composting facilities in 8 separate plantings from November 2013 to August 2015.nPlant injuries were observed.
C. Coker, D. Goossen, J. Kelly, A. Hazelrigg and G. Maia
BioCycle March/April 2016, Vol. 57, No. 3, p. 53

County Departments Reduce Costs With Cocomposting
Yard trimmings ground to 6-inch minus are mixed with dewatered biosolids (15-16% solids) in a 3:1 ratio.

Florida county conducts pilot project to gauge its ability to manage yard trimmings and biosolids using internal resources — and to confirm marketability of the finished compost.
Beth Schinella and Bruce Clark
BioCycle March/April 2016, Vol. 57, No. 3, p. 60

Composting Roundup

Adding Food Scraps To Green Waste Bin; Youth Enriched By Composting Project; New Rules To Ease Small-Scale Composting; Residential Organics Collection Routes

Controlling Composting Odors

Composting is never odor-free, even under optimum conditions for aerobic decomposition of organic matter. Here are some tried and true strategies to maintain successful operations.
Craig Coker
BioCycle February 2016, Vol. 57, No. 2, p. 18

Volume-Based Measuring At Composting Facilities
An open-top truck containing materials passes under a load volume scanner, which maps a 3-D image of the load.

Scanning technology calculates volumes of inbound and outbound loads, accounting for variability in raw feedstocks and finished products.
Craig Coker
BioCycle January 2016, Vol. 57, No. 1 p.24

Egg Laying Operation Finds Solutions Via Composting
A Brown Bear PTO composting aerator attached to a farm tractor is used to blend the feedstocks and agitate and aerate the composting piles. Photo courtesy of Brown Bear Corp.

Baer Brothers Egg composts manure from approximately 1.2 million laying hens. In 2015, composting also took care of birds killed by the avian flu outbreak.
Dan Emerson
BioCycle January 2016, Vol. 57, No. 1 p.34

Composting Solution To Avian Flu Mortality Management
Figure 1. Cross section of windrow

Experience in 2015 demonstrated that composting can be a viable carcass disposal option for large avian flu outbreaks, with applicability for all types of poultry operations.
Gary Flory and Bob Peer
BioCycle January 2016, Vol. 57, No. 1 p.37

Patriot Place Steps Up To State Organics Ban Compliance
Pre and postconsumer food scraps, compostable bags and PLA cups, and milk cartons are accepted in the organics stream. Waste Management (WM) supplied 96-gallon totes with a yellow body and green lid for all organics (1, on right). Totes for single-stream recyclables have a green body and yellow lid (1, on left). WM hauls organics (totes ready to be tipped into truck (2)) to the Town of Needham (MA) composting site.

A 1.3 million-square-foot shopping, dining and entertainment destination located adjacent to Gillette Stadium, home of the New England Patriots, diverts food scraps to composting.
Marsha W. Johnston
BioCycle January 2016, Vol. 57, No. 1 p.52

Farm Aid Plants Seeds Of Sustainability
Farm Aid’s 30th Anniversary Concert was held at the FirstMerit Bank Pavilion at Northerly Island last summer. It was the venue’s first experience collecting a compostables stream (green bin with green bag, above and at left). Farm Aid requires that all food service items coming into contact with food be compostable.

Venues hosting Farm Aid’s annual concert are required to serve food sustainably grown by local family farmers and institute organics recycling.
Stephanie Katsaros
BioCycle January 2016, Vol. 57, No. 1 p.55

Franciosi Named USCC Executive Director
Frank Franciosi, Executive Director, US Composting Council

The US Composting Council (USCC) Board of Directors is pleased to announce the appointment of Frank Franciosi, a composting industry leader and business executive, to the leadership position of Executive Director of the USCC and its sister foundation, the Composting Council Research and Education Foundation.

Organics Diversion At Massachusetts Boarding School
Coffee stations switched to using compostable coffee “pouches” (top right) instead of plastic single-serve coffee pods. Significant waste reduction was achieved, as 30,000-plus cups of coffee are consumed on campus annually.

Deerfield Academy has taken a slow but steady approach to diverting food scraps, compostable paper and pizza boxes on its campus.
David Purington
BioCycle December 2015, Vol. 56, No. 11, p. 39

Composting Roundup
Glenn Clark explains the food waste separation project to students in his Living Environment class at Parish-Hopkinton Central School in Parishville, New York.

BioCycle November 2015, Vol. 56, No. 10, p. 10

Evolving Into Food Scraps Composting
Food scraps are unloaded on a bed of horse manure to absorb liquids. Carbon is then added in the form of wood chips, leaves and/or additional manure and the materials are mixed with a front-end loader.

Connecticut composter transitions to solar-powered aerated static piles to expand composting capacity and improve process control.
Dan Emerson
BioCycle November 2015, Vol. 56, No. 10, p. 20

Compost And The Battle Against Citrus Greening
Compost is being tested in a grapefruit orchard in trials comparing conventional practice using plastic mulch at the base of the trees (above) versus applying compost as a mulch. After 2.5 years, the trees with compost show, on average, a 38 percent increase in trunk diameter.

Reliable harvest data is still five to six years away, but plots where compost was applied are showing faster, healthier citrus tree growth.
Peter Gorrie
BioCycle November 2015, Vol. 56, No. 10, p. 23

Organics Diversion In College Residence Halls
At the University of California Berkeley, students are given 2-gallon bins (left) to use in their rooms to collect food scraps. These are emptied into centralized bins in the dorms, which then are taken by custodial staff to an outdoor collection area (right).

Residential hall composting programs have been popping up at universities and colleges throughout the country to help reach campus-wide waste diversion goals.
Claire Siegrist
BioCycle November 2015, Vol. 56, No. 10, p. 29

Heat Recovery, Food Production At Boston Composting Facility
Figure 1. Compost aeration and heat recovery diagram

Educational greenhouse at City of Boston yard trimmings site is using heat and moisture captured from aerated static piles to sustain a year-round growing operation.
Gaelan Brown
BioCycle November 2015, Vol. 56, No. 10, p. 39

Editorial: All The Garbage That Fits In Print
Goldstein Jerome

BioCycle October 2015, Vol. 56, No. 9, p. 4
Jerome Goldstein