Air Quality Permitting For Anaerobic Digesters
Figure 1. Significant Impact Area (SIA) to map interactive emission sources

The air permitting process has many nuances that can be thoughtfully anticipated to avoid significant project costs and delays. Part I
John Hinckley
BioCycle September 2017, Vol. 58, No. 8, p. 58

Managing Odors At Anaerobic Digestion Plants
Quasar energy group took a critical look at its biofilters, including the media, sizing and contact time as odorous air passes through. The new biofilter at its Wooster (Ohio) AD plant is four times the size of the original.

Experiencing odors and complaints at its AD operations, quasar energy group spent 10 months dissecting the situation and coming up with a suite of solutions.
Marsha W. Johnston
BioCycle March/April 2017, Vol. 58, No. 3, p. 39

Controlling Composting Odors

Composting is never odor-free, even under optimum conditions for aerobic decomposition of organic matter. Here are some tried and true strategies to maintain successful operations.
Craig Coker
BioCycle February 2016, Vol. 57, No. 2, p. 18

Cost-Effective Odor Control
Figure 6. Stratified air management

Technical Advisor on odor from England’s Environment Agency discusses odor pollution control options for organics recycling facilities in the context of business planning, management and abatement.
Nick Sauer
BioCycle November 2014, Vol. 55, No. 10, p. 25

Community Achieves An Odor Solution
A conveyor belt (left) was installed to transfer dewatered biosolids directly from the treatment plant to the adjacent composting site — which was required to install a biofilter system (right).

How citizens of Missoula, Montana worked with the local health department, consultants and the local treatment plant and composting facility to address nuisance odors.
Katrina Mendrey
BioCycle June 2014, Vol. 55, No. 5, p. 31

Zero Waste Composting
After establishing a robust prevention program, collection of the remaining SSO should be designed to leverage a community’s existing infrastructure, e.g., cocollection of SSO and recyclables.

An in-depth economic, social and environmental impact analysis factored in source reduction and home composting, as well as organics collection, composting and anaerobic digestion.
Joanna Stone, Kate Davenport and Bryan Ukena
BioCycle June 2014, Vol. 55, No. 5, p. 33

Legal Perspectives On Odor Impacts
BioCycle February 2014

Washington State lawyer who works with both composting facilities and impacted neighborhoods explains the legal intricacies when it comes to off-site odors.
Katrina Mendrey
BioCycle February 2014, Vol. 55, No. 2, p. 30

The Compost Odor Wheel
Figure 1. Composting odor wheel

Katrina Mendrey
BioCycle February 2014, Vol. 55, No. 2, p. 34

Measuring Oxygen In Compost
Measuring oxygen in compost

Odor emissions from composting sites has prompted scientists in England to rethink the way conditions are monitored using principles developed by Victorian chemists 200 years ago.
Nick Sauer and Eric Crouch
BioCycle December 2013, Vol. 54, No. 12, p. 23

The Art And Science Of Odor Modeling
Figure 2. Odor dispersion model (odor units/m3)

Modeling tools are risk management approaches, essentially predicting the number of occurrences in a given time period when a predicted odor level will occur. Part VII
Craig Coker
BioCycle July 2013, Vol. 54, No. 7, p. 43

Odor Dispersion Fundamentals
Figure 1. Buoyant emissions plume

Dispersion is the phenomenon where odor concentrations are reduced to below recognition or detection thresholds. It is influenced by meteorological conditions and topographic effects. Part VI
Craig Coker
BioCycle June 2013, Vol. 54, No. 6, p. 26

Design Considerations In Covered Aerated Static Pile Composting
The Gore cover system uses fabric covers made of a layer of ePTFE (see close-up) sandwiched between two layers of polyester for structure.

Synthetic covers include polyethylene (PE) tarps, flexible vinyl fabrics, PE fleece blankets and expanded polytetrafluoroeth-ylene. Covers are used with both forced and induced aeration. Part III
Craig Coker and Tom Gibson
BioCycle May 2013, Vol. 54, No. 5, p. 21

Pipe And Blower Fan Fundamentals In ASP Design
Facilities can test various piping system designs, such as entrenching the pipes as shown in this pilot test (top). ASP composting designs most often use centrifugal blowers (bottom), as these are recommended for systems with back pressure caused by having long runs of piping or ducting

Effectiveness of aerated static pile composting depends largely on the aeration system, which can comprise a large portion of the facility’s cost and energy use. Part II
Tom Gibson and Craig Coker
BioCycle February 2013, Vol. 54, No. 2, p. 24

Resolving Odor Challenges
Lineal distances (in feet) to odor survey stations from the Mdewakanton Sioux Community organics recycling facility are shown.

Developing productive and meaningful public relationship programs is critical to resolving odor challenges at organics recycling facilities. Part V
Craig Coker
BioCycle November 2012, Vol. 53, No. 11, p. 22

Odor Treatment At Composting Facilities
Figure 1. Biofilter cross-section

Biological, physical and chemical approaches are available to battle odors. Most composters would agree that simplest solutions are best. Part IV
Craig Coker
BioCycle August 2012, Vol. 53, No. 8, p. 21

Going On Offense Against Odors

Proactive management techniques, such as mixing incoming putrescent feedstocks within an hour of receipt at the facility, are effective tools to prevent odors. Part III
Craig Coker
BioCycle June 2012, Vol. 53, No. 6, p. 25

Odor Defense Strategy
Measuring and documenting wind speed and direction for compost odor control

Good site design and not erring from composting process fundamentals are keys to odor control at composting facilities. Part II
Craig Coker
BioCycle May 2012, Vol. 53, No. 5, p. 35

Air Emissions Control For Composting Operations
Aerated static pile with a biofilter layer

More regulatory scrutiny of air emissions, combined with the ongoing need for odor control, has led more facilities to employ technologies and strategies beyond optimizing process management.

T.R. Card and C.E. Schmidt
BioCycle March 2012, Vol. 53, No. 3, p. 27

Composting Process Optimization

Using a larger particle size enhances airflow in the windrows — and a reduction in odors.
Craig Coker
BioCycle January 2012, Vol. 53, No. 1, p. 42